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Published by Shanmugam Ramesh
Engineering Chemistry Notes
Engineering Chemistry Notes

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Published by: Shanmugam Ramesh on Oct 05, 2012
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Dr.V.S.Gayathri and Dr.K.Yamuna Page 1 11/27/2008
ABRASIVESTopics discussed
 
Definition
 
Classification with examples
 
Mohs Scale
 
Applications
 
Natural abrasives
 
Synthetic abrasives
Throughout history, humans have used materials ranging from beach sand to walnut shells topaper bags as abrasives . Widely-used naturally occurring abrasives include garnet, ceriumoxide, flint, emery, corundum (aluminum oxide), and diamond. These materials may havevarying characteristics and chemical compositions depending on the specific geologicalsource. Manufactured versions of these materials are usually more consistent in chemicalcomposition and other characteristics.Abrasives can be distinguished in a variety of waysbased on their hardness / color/ chemical composition / crystal shape etc to name a few.Since the chemical composition- that is, the type of material- determines the abrasiveness, theidentification of abrasives based on composition is popular
 
Definition
 
Abrasive is a substance used to wear down ( cut / polish / grind /sharp)the surface of the materials with which it is in contact
 
 
Abrasion is the ability of a substance to wear or tear the surface of othersubstance
 
Abrasives should possess good hardness, toughness and refractoriness
 
Hardness: Is defined as the ability of a substance to resist scratching
 
Toughness: Is defined as the ability of a substance to cause indentation orto scratch other material
 
Refractoriness: Is defined as the ability of a substance to withstand hightemperature (Frictional Heat)
 
Dr.V.S.Gayathri and Dr.K.Yamuna Page 2 11/27/2008
Abrasives are classified
 
Based On Occurrence : Natural and Synthetic
 
Based on Hardness: Hard ,Moderate and Soft
Mohs Scale - Mineral Hardness
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness was devised by Frederich Mohs, a Germanmineralogist in 1812.To devise the scale, he selected ten minerals as a basis because they werecommon or readily available, thus the scale is not linear, but is a bit arbitrary.It is a measure of the relative hardness and resistance to scratching betweenminerals (tested by Pin on Disc method)Though there are other scales like Rockwell, Vickers and Brinell, Mohs scale isstill the most common scale of mineral hardness.
Hardness
Hard (M.S >7)Diamond, , SiC,Moderate (M.S. 3 – 7)QuartzSoft (M.S. <3)Talc
Occurrence
Natural
Talc
Synthetic
SiC BC
 
Non siliceous
Diamond Corundum
Siliceous
 uartz Garnet
 
Dr.V.S.Gayathri and Dr.K.Yamuna Page 3 11/27/2008
Moh’s scaleMineral Moh’sscalecomposition
Talc 1 Mg
3
Si
4
O
10
(OH)
2
 Gypsum 2 CaSO
4
.2H
2
OCalcite 3 CaCO
3
 Fluorite 4 CaF
2
 Apatite 5 CaF
2
.3Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
 Feldspar 6 K
2
O.Al
2
O
3
.6H
2
OQuartz 7 SiO
2
 Topaz 8 AlF
3
.SiO
2
 Corundum 9 Al
2
O
3
 Diamond 10 C
Mnemonics to remember the order of Mhos scale
T
o
G
et
C
and
y F
rom
A
unt
F
anny
Q
uit
T
easin
g C
ousin
D
anny
 

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