that "a free people [claim] their rights as derived from the laws of nature, and not as the gift of theirchief magistrate."Customalso plays a role. Implied orunenumerated rightsare rights thatcourtsmay find to existeven though not expressly guaranteed by written law or custom; one example is theright toprivacyin theUnited States.The question of who civil and political rights apply to is a subject of controversy. In manycountries,citizenshave greater protections against infringement of rights than non-citizens; atthe same time, civil and political rights are considered to be universal rights that apply to allpersons.
Main article:civil rights movementWhen civil and political rights are not guaranteed to all as part of equal protectionof laws,socialunrestmay ensue.The civil rights movement was a worldwidepolitical movementforequality before the lawoccurring between approximately 1950 and 1980. It was accompanied by muchcivil unrestandpopular rebellion. While civil rights movements over the last 60 years have resulted in anextension of civil and political rights, the process was long and tenuous in many countries, andmost of these movements did not achieve or fully achieve their objectives. In its later years, thecivil rights movement took a sharp turn to theradical leftin many cases.
Questions about civil and political rights have frequently emerged. For example, to what extentshould the government intervene to protect individuals from infringement on their rights by otherindividuals,or fromcorporations