1 of 600 children will develop cancer in their childhood. Almost 1/3 of these casesis leukemia (i.e. 30% of child malignancy is leukemia) and it is the commonesttype of childhood malignancy.The 2
common cause of childhood malignancy: Brain tumors.The 3
: Neuroblastoma.The 4
: Wilm’s tumor.
And lastly the 5
Definition:Leukemia is the most common child malignancy clonal expansion .It is blast cellclonal expansion and arrest at a specific stage of lymphoid or myeloidhematopoiesis & differentiation. So, there will be no further differentiation of theseblasts but accumulation of these cells according to the underlying clone. Leukemicexpansion starts in the bone marrow it is inflected first in the peripheral bonema
rrow, which causes leukocytosis, and may cause leucopenia in some cases…
Any abnormal cell could be a clone for a leukemic transformation. Because of that,there are different types of leukemia, for example: ALL, Pre B, Mature T,Myeloid, promyelocytic, etc.During the process of maturation, there is what we call ((cluster differentiation)),which means that we have CD markers which are antigenic features that appear onthe cell surface during a stage of maturation & disappear during the others
Depending on these antigens, we can differentiate between different cell types &stages of development by using antibodies which are specific to these antigens. Forinstance if the cells had the stem cell markers that would be a leukemia arisingfrom an early stem cell, more over, if it had a B-cell Marker then it is a B-cellleukemia. Hence, each line of cell differentiation can be a site for leukemic clonalexpansion.