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Module 5 Hydropower Equipments

Module 5 Hydropower Equipments

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Published by: TESLARAZEN on Oct 05, 2012
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Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
Instructional objectives:
On completion of this lesson, the student shall learn about:1. Equipment employed for converting water energy to electrical energy2. Different types of turbines3. Guidelines for selecting a specific turbine4. layout of power houses
5.3.0 Introduction
The powerhouse of a hydroelectric development project is the place where the potentialand kinetic energy of the water flowing through the water conducting system is transformedinto mechanical energy of rotating turbines and which is then further converted to electricalenergy by generators. In order to achieve these functions, certain important equipments arenecessary that control the flow entering the turbines from the penstocks and direct the flowagainst the turbine blades for maximum efficient utilization of water power. Otherequipments necessary are couplings to link the turbine rotation to generator andtransformers and switching equipment to convey the electric power generated to the powerdistribution system.A powerhouse also accomodates equipment that are necessary for regular operation andmaintenance of the turbine and power generating units. For example, overhead cranes arerequired for lifting or lowering ofturbines and generator during installation period or later forrepair and maintenance. For the crane to run, guide rails on columns are essentiallyrequired. The maintenance of a unit is done by lifting it by the crane and transporting it toone end of the power house where abundant space is kept for placing the faulty unit. Aworkshop nearby provides necessary tools and space for the technicians working on therepair of the units.A control room is also essential in a powerhouse from where engineers can regulate thevalves controlling water flow into the turbines or monitor the performance of each unit to themain power grid.Power houses that receive water from a reservoir through a penstock may be termed aspower generating units detached from head works. There is another class of powerhousethat utilize the water head directly from the water body. These are usually the run-of theriver type power houses mentioned in Lesson 5.1, which are located as a part of a barragein a river or those which utilize the head difference of a canal fall.The detached power houses may be surface or underground types depending upon itsposition with respect to the ground surface. In-stream or run-of-river power houses aremostly surface type.Turbines are of different types like reaction or impulse-types. They may also be divided aswith horizontal or vertical axes. This lesson discusses all the salient features of a
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

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