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Chapter 27

Chapter 27

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Published by: Bảo Phạm on Oct 06, 2012
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Chapter 27Computer-based data processingI.
Data Processing
: Transferring data into meaningful information1)
Data processing system 
: operation or combination of operation to reassembling facts intomeaningful information.
2) Data and Information Distinguished 
- Data
Raw facts
Unorganized facts- Information
Processed data
Meaningful organized data
II. Base Elements of a Data Processing System
1) Input- Act of acquiring data which will be transformed into meaningful system- Recording, classifying, batching, verification and scanning2) Processing- Operations required to transform data into information required by users- Storage: retaining input, partial results and finished output- Arithmetic-logic unit: manipulates data in mathematical and logical ways- Control subsystem: manage the transformation process- Sorting, calculating, comparing, transcribing, summarizing and screening out holdingdata for future retrieval3) Output:- Delivery or communication of information to users- Reporting, issuance of documents, retrieval and analysisIII.
Basic Data Processing Operations
: gathering of data within and outside the entity as transactions take place.2)
: capturing or entering of data into a formal form used in the processingroutine.3)
: identification of data having common features and grouping them todetermine the appropriate treatment.4)
: arrangement of data before they are processed.5)
: application of mathematical process to data.
6) Summarizing 
: compression of a body of data into a more concise form.
Communicating and reporting 
: transmitting of data from the point of acquisition to aprocessing location.8)
: filing of data.
IV. Method of Data Processing
: manually performed or by hand utilizing pencil or pen, with or without the use of minor p
hysical or mechanical devices (calculators, type writer…)
2) Electro-mechanical data processing 3) Electronic data processing 
- With the use of electronic device or computer - Data are converted into magnetic and electronic impulses in or on electronic device- Used most efficiently in processing operations that have the following characteristics:
Large volume of data or input
Demand for greater speed and accuracy in processing
Repetition of projects or tasks
Complex calculation involving large numbers of interacting variables
V. Overview of Computer-Based Data Processing
:- Extremely fast- Extremely accurate- Greater processing control- Large data volume handled with small external storage requirement- Reduced cost2)
- Relatively high cost of equipment- High cost of system design and programming- Channeling of works- Conversion to an electronic system
VI. Components of The Computerized System
1) Hardware: the configuration of physical equipment comprising the input, processing andoutput phases of an EDP system.a)
Central processing unit (CPU)
: is responsible for interpreting and executing most of the commands from the computer's hardware and software.-
Control units 
: part of digital computer or processor which determines theexecution and interpretation of instruction and in proper sequence.- Arithmetic-logic unit:
Arithmetic operation: refers to the basic mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Logical operation: refers to the comparison of two items to determine if one item is less than, greater than or equal to others.-
Storage or memory 
: device in which data can be stored and from which they canbe obtained. 2 closely CPU-related storage:
Internal primary storage:
Random-access memory (RAM): to store large quantities of data.
Register memory: to store small amounts of data.
Can be read from and written on
Read-only memory (ROM)
Permanent storage used to hold the basic low-level programs anddata.
ROM can be read from but not written tob)
Peripheral Equipment 
:- Encompasses auxiliary machines that may be placed under the control of theCPU (online or offline).- Consists of input, storage and output devise.
Input: provides a means of transferring data into CPU storage.
Output: devices that produce readable data for users or inputable data for further processing.
Storage devices: store data that can be subsequently used by the CPU.2) Software: all computer programs, procedures, rules and related documentation whichdirect and control the computer hardware in data processing.
a) System software 
- Supervise the operations of the CPU- Control the input/output functions of the computer system- Translate programming languages- Provide various other support services
Operating system: control and schedule hardware use
DBMS: perform multipurpose data handling functions (creating,accessing and maintaining a database).
Software monitor 
Antivirus software
Library management software
b) Application (user) programs 
- Written to perform specialized functions on data processing requirements inbusiness, science, medicine, education and law enforcement.- Vendor-produced software and own-built software.3) Personnel:a)
Information systems EDP manager 
: has overall responsibility for supervising andcontrolling all activities performed in data processing department.b)
Systems development personnel 
System analyst 
: researches problems, plans solutions, recommends softwareand systems, and coordinates development to meet business or other requirements.-
System programmer 
: a programmer who works mainly on producing code towork for the computer hardware and processes, as opposed to one whoproduces code for an end user.
Application programmer 
: someone who works in many different programminglanguages to create the source code, which is responsible for creating small or large parts of a piece of software in concert with others.-
Database administrator 
: is a person responsible for the installation, configuration,upgrade, administration monitoring and maintenance of databases in anorganization.c) Operations personnel-
Computer operator 
: is the one who oversees the running of computer systems,ensuring that the machines are running and physically secured and free of anybugs.-
Data Entry Operator 
: Converts manual input to machine-readable-
: Maintain custody and control over magnetic tapes, computer,documentation, and other computer-related software-
Control Clerk 
: is the one who acts as liaison between users and the processingcenter, monitors computer input, maintains error logs and ensures compliancewith control totals.4) Procedures: refers to the process for obtaining and preparing data, operating thecomputer, distributing the input from computer processing and controlling processingsteps.5) Data: Raw facts to be gathered processed to generate information which in turn ispresented to the user as basis for decision making.-
Data Organization 
File: An organized collection of related records.
Block: A group of records (or words) held or processed as a unit.
Record: A group of related items or fields of data handled as a unit.
Field, item, word: A group of related characters that also is a subdivisionof a record.
Byte, character: A group of bits that represent a character of one columnin a field that contain some representation of a character.
Bit: a binary digit for representing characters.
Flow Charts 
: symbolic diagram of a specific part of an internal accounting controlsystem indicating the sequential flow of data and/or authority.
Hierarchy of Computer Processes 
: these are the largest type of computer which canprocess billions of instructions per second.
: refers to the processing unit in a large computer system. Ittends to process very large capacities and are capable of extremely highspeeds in carrying out all functions.
: a system that provides computing power and peripheraldevice access to a number of users and do not require a specialenvironment for operation
: contains the processor, internal storage and limitednumber of chips.
Personal Computers 
: serves the needs of individual users.
Modes of Computer Operations 
 A. Based on the timing of transaction processing
1) Batch Mode 
Data are collected into groups before processing.
The data are then processed at regular intervals to update existinginformation
Most often used in customer billing system and a payroll systemwhich is either un or performed weekly, twice a month or monthly.
2) On-line Mode 
Data are processed immediately after a transaction is made toupdate current information.
Known as real-time processing
VII. Computer Information Systems
1) Small Computers (Microcomputers, personal computers)
- Powerful, affordable and provide a cost-effective information processing alternative for entities that has constrains in manual processing.

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