Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword or section
Like this
4Activity

Table Of Contents

0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Photoinduced Reactivity of Titanium Dioxide Najjaci

Photoinduced Reactivity of Titanium Dioxide Najjaci

Ratings: (0)|Views: 390 |Likes:
Published by dmitarz978

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: dmitarz978 on Oct 06, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/28/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Progress in Solid State Chemistry 32 (2004) 33–177www.elsevier.nl/locate/pssc
Photoinduced reactivity of titanium dioxide
O. Carp
a,
Ã
, C.L. Huisman
b
, A. Reller
b
a
Institute of Physical Chemistry ‘I.G. Murgulescu’, Spl. Independentei 202, Sector 6, Bucharest, Romania
b
Solid State Chemistry, University of Augsburg, Universita¨ tstrasse 1, D-86159 Augsburg, Germany
Abstract
The utilization of solar irradiation to supply energy or to initiate chemical reactions isalready an established idea. If a wide-band gap semiconductor like titanium dioxide (TiO
2
)is irradiated with light, excited electron–hole pairs result that can be applied in solar cells togenerate electricity or in chemical processes to create or degrade specific compounds.Recently, a new process used on the surface of TiO
2
films, namely, photoinduced super-hydrophilicity, is described. All three appearances of the photoreactivity of TiO
2
are dis-cussed in detail in this review, but the main focus is on the photocatalytic activity towardsenvironmentally hazardous compounds (organic, inorganic, and biological materials), whichare found in wastewater or in air. Besides information on the mechanistical aspects andapplications of these kinds of reactions, a description of the attempts and possibilities toimprove the reactivity is also provided. This paper would like to assist the reader in gettingan overview of this exciting, but also complicated, field.
#
2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Titanium dioxide; Photocatalysis; Photoinduced processes; Surface properties; Environmentalremediation
Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371.1. Titanium in our world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371.2. Photoinduced processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392. Titanium dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412.1. General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412.2. Crystal structure and properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Ã
Corresponding author. Tel./fax: +40-212128871.
E-mail address:
carp@apia.ro (O. Carp).0079-6786/$ - see front matter
#
2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.progsolidstchem.2004.08.001
 
2.3. Synthesis and morphologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452.3.1. Solution routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452.3.2. Gas phase methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492.4. Semiconductors and photocatalytic activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523. Photoinduced processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533.1. General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533.2. Photovoltaic cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543.3. Photocatalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573.3.1. General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573.3.2. Photocatalytic synthetic processes versus partial/totalphotodegradation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593.3.3. Special reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613.4. Photoinduced superhydrophilicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634. Mechanistical aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654.1. Present ideas and models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654.2. Operational parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684.2.1. Catalyst loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694.2.2. Concentration of the pollutant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694.2.3. Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704.2.4. Photon flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704.2.5. Oxygen pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704.3. Evaluation of photodegradation efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714.4. Photodegradation using nanosized TiO
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735. Improving photocatalytic reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735.1. General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735.2. Structural and morphological aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745.3. Doping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775.4. Metal coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825.5. Surface sensitization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845.6. Composite semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845.7. Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865.8. Recognition sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 896. Photocatalytic applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 896.1. Selective organic synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906.1.1. General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906.1.2. Alkanes and alkenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906.1.3. Saturated and unsaturated alicyclic hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . 916.1.4. Aromatic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936.1.5. Alcohols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 956.1.6. Aldehydes, ketones, acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 976.1.7. Amines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
O. Carp et al. / Progress in Solid State Chemistry 32 (2004) 33–177 
34
 
6.1.8. Nitro and nitroso compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986.1.9. Sulfides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986.2. Water purification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986.2.1. General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986.2.2. Influence of process parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1006.2.3. Combined processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1046.2.4. Organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1066.2.5. Inorganic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1186.3. Air cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1256.3.1. General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1256.3.2. Cofeeding processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1306.3.3. Organic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1306.3.4. Inorganic compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1336.3.5. Photocatalyst deactivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1346.3.6. Inuence of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1356.3.7. Indoor applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1376.4. Disinfection and anti-tumoral activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1386.5. Photoactive materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1436.5.1. Construction materials for air cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1436.5.2. Self-cleaning and anti-fogging materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1447. Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Nomenclature
A
light absorption coefficient at a given wavelengthA acceptorAC active carbonAds adsorbed species on a surfaceAOP advanced oxidation processAOTs advanced oxidation technologiesBOD biological oxygen demandBTEX benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xyleneCOD chemical oxygen demandCB conduction bandCHQ chloroquinone,2-CP, 4-CP 2-, 4-chlorophenolD donorDBPs disinfection by-products
35
O. Carp et al. / Progress in Solid State Chemistry 32 (2004) 33–177 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->