DiffAmp.doc 1
The differential amplifier
The emitter coupled differential amplifier output is V
o
= A
d
V
d
+ A
c
V
C
Where V
d
= V
1

V
2
and V
C
= (V
1
+ V
2
) / 2In the ideal differential amplifier A
c
should be zero and A
d
should be as high as possible,To find A
d
, we apply a purely differential signal V
d
to the amplifier, with V
C
= 0Then Vo = A
d
V
d
, and we can find A
d
.To find A
c
, we apply purely common mode signal V
1
= V
2
= V
C
so that Vo = A
c
V
C
.From this we an find A
c
.In the general case, after finding A
d
and A
c
we can calculate Vo for given inputs.
EMITTER COUPLED DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERGain A
d
:
VccQ1Q2RcReeRcVeeVoV1V2Q1Q2RcRcVeeVoVd/2Vd/2Q1Vd/2Rc
The differential mode gain is obtained by applying a differential signal. In quiescent state, both inputs are 0 and theemitters carry equal currents I
E
. The current in R
EE
is 2I
E
.When differential signal is applied, Q1 current increase to I
E
+
D
I
E
and Q2 current decreases to I
E

D
I
E
.The current in R
EE
remains 2I
E
.Thus voltage across R
EE
does not change from quiescent value, even when signal is present.The voltage V
E
therefore remains constant, and is equivalent to a DC voltage source equal to 2I
E
R
EE
were connected inplace of R
EE
.For signal analysis equivalent circuit, a dc source is equivalent to a short circuit for the signal.Thus for the signal V
d
/2 the emitter of Q1 and Q2 are effectively grounded.The circuit can therefore be bisected along the central axis of symmetry, without changing any signal voltages orcurrents, and the half circuit is a CE amplifier circuit.The gain therefore is Vo /(V
d
/2) =

h
fe
R
C
/h
ie
and the input resistance of each half circuit is h
ie
.Thus Vo /V
d
=A
d
=

h
fe
R
C
/2 h
ie
and differential input resistance is h
ie
+ h
ie
= 2 h
ie
across the two input terminalsCOMMON MODE GAIN:Initially consider Quiescent state. The current in R
EE
is 2I
E
. Now give a pure common signal V
C
to both inputs. Thecurrent in both transistors increases to I
E
+
D
each. Current in R
EE
is now2(I
E
+
D
).Now replace R
EE
with two resistors , each of 2R
EE
value in parallel. This will not change the circuit in any way.The current in each parallel resistor of 2R
EE
is 2(I
E
+
D
)/2 = (I
E
+
D
).Thus ALL the current coming from each emitter (I
E
+
D
) goes into the nearest 2R
EE
resistance.There is no current in the link joining the tops of the two 2R
EE
resistors., so we can safely open that link withoutaffecting behaviour of the circuit.The original circuit can now be cut along the axis of symmetry to form two identical half circuits.Each half circuit is a CE with R
E
where R
E
= 2R
EE
Hence gain Vo/V
C
=A
c
=

h
fe
R
C
/(h
ie
+ (I + h
fe
) 2R
EE
)
@

R
C
/2R
EE
for large h
fe
and normal h
ie
The common mode input resistance is h
ie
+ (I + h
fe
) 2R
EE
I
E
I
E
2I
E
2I
E
I
E
+
D
I
E
I
E

D
I
E