(implied by the fact that the modal verbs express an attitude of the speaker),
(the fact that modal verbs are ordered on two scales: deontic and epistemic).
C. Types of modality
comprises the two basic types: deontic and epistemic. Etymology,definition and explanation concerning these terms are given.
II. PRELIMINARIES ON THE ENGLISH MODAL VERBS
also contains threesubparts:
A. Grammatical status of the English modal verbs
which is considered from two perspectives: syntactic (modal verbs are part of the inflection) and morphologic (they areregarded as semi-auxiliary verbs, i.e. in between auxiliary and full verbs).
B. Characteristics of the English modal verbs
refer to their syntactic traits ( they arefollowed by the bare infinitive, cannot occur in non-finite functions, have no –s form for 3
person singular, present simple tense, their past forms can be used to refer to present andfuture time plus the so-called NICE properties).
C. A classification of the English modal verbs
ranges all of these verbs on a scale fromcentral modals to main verbs.
III. THE MEANINGS OF THE ENGLISH MODAL VERBS
are presented not in theold-fashioned way (a list of verbs and their meanings), but from a ‘functional’ point of view, i.e. the modal verbs are listed under two headings: epistemic and deontic that, in turn,have such subheadings as certainty, probability, possibility, etcThe second part comes to counterbalance the first one with four chapters and is concernedmainly with teaching the modal verbs.
contains two subparts:
on teaching grammar
is designed to offer an answer tothe questions: Why should we learn grammar? and How should we learn it? A quitesurprising distinction is made by H.G. Widdowson between the traditional way of teaching grammar (‘medium view’) and the (post)modern one (‘mediation view’).
What it takes to do the job?
refers to what ingredients a grammar lesson needs inorder to be successful.
V. TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO TEACHING THE ENGLISH MODAL VERBS
uses the framework of Grammar Translation Method in order to present four lessons for