Tiffany LoucksAugust 21, 2012deWit: Fundamental Concepts and Skills for Nursing, 3
EditionOpen Book QuizzesChapter 16: Infection Prevention and Control: Protective Mechanism and Asepsis1. How does a Gram stain help to classify bacteria?
Bacteria placed on a slide are stained then treated with contrasting dye. Those retaining stain areGram positive. Those losing stain are Gram negative.
2. What are the four most common multidrug-resistant organisms?
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)Extended spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing (ESBL) gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)Clostridium difficile (C.Diff)
3. Describe the characteristics that affect virulence.
Ability to adhere to mucosal surfaces/skinAbility to penetrate mucous membranesAbility to multiply once in the bodyAbility to secrete harmful enzymes/toxinsAbility to resist phagocytosis
4. What is the most effective means for destroying viruses and all other kinds of microorganisms?
Exposure to moist heat at high temperatures for 16-20 minutes
5. Identify the modes of transfer of pathogens and explain how the mode of transmission can beinterrupted.
Direct and indirect personal contact with open soresVectors (fleas, ticks, mosquitoes)DropletSpreading from one body part to anotherTransfer can be interrupted by effective hand hygiene, disinfection/sterilization of medicalequipment, aseptic technique usage, using Standard Precautions to prevent contamination
6. What are the factors that can place the elderly person at higher risk of infection?
Poor nutritionPoor mobilityPoor hygieneChronic illnessPhysiologic changes
7. After the body first defends itself from the invasion of pathogens, what
second line of defense
helpsdestroy these organisms?
Fever, leukocytosis, phagocytosis, inflammation, action of interferon