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Published by Jasim Bashir

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Published by: Jasim Bashir on Oct 07, 2012
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Properties of Crude Oil Systems
Crude oil is a complex mixture consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons and containing sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen,and helium as minor constituents. The physical and chemical properties of crude oils vary considerably and aredependent on the concentration of the various types of hydrocarbons and minor constituents present.An accurate description of physical properties of crude oils is of a considerable importance in the fields of bothapplied and theoretical science and especially in the solution of petroleum reservoir engineering problems. Physicalproperties of primary interest in petroleum engineering studies include:
• Fluid gravity
• Specific gravity of the solution gas
• Gas solubility
• Bu
bble-point pressure
• Oil formation volume factor 
• Isothermal compressibility coefficient of under saturated crude oils
• Oil density
• Total formation volume factor 
• Crude oil viscosity
• Surface tension
Crude Oil Gravity
The crude oil density is defined as the mass of a unit volume of the crude at a specified pressure and temperature. Itis usually expressed in pounds per cubic foot. The specific gravity of a crude oil is defined as the ratio of the densityof the oil to that of water. Both densities are measured at 60°F and atmospheric pressure.go= (ro/ rw)Wherego = specific gravity of the oilro = density of the crude oil, lb/ft3rw = density of the water, lb/ft3
What is Solubility?
is simply defined as an ability of a substance to dissolve. In the process of dissolving, thesubstance which is being dissolved is called a
and the substance in which the solute is dissolved iscalled a
. A mixture of solutes and solvent is called a
is the well known property of a solid, liquid, gas or gaseous chemical substance called
todissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a
homogeneous solution
of the solute in the solvent.The solubility of a any substance fundamentally depends on the used
as well as on temperature andpressure.
For Example:
In this example, you can easily understand.Suppose, when we insert sugar into water it will dissolve. In this process:
Sugar is the
Water is the
.Generally, solubilities of solids in liquids increase with temperature and those of gases decrease with temperatureand increase with pressure. A solution in which no more solute can be dissolved at a given temperature and pressureis said to be saturated (saturation).There are various factors affecting solubility namely; temperature, pressure, polarity, molecular size and stirringincreares the speed of dissolving.
Solubility of gases/Gas solubility in liquids
The solubility of a gas in a liquid depends on temperature, the partial pressure of the gas over the liquid, the natureof the solvent and the nature of the gas. The most common solvent is water.
Gas solubility
is always limited by theequilibrium between the gas and a saturated solution of the gas. The dissolved gas will always follow
Henry's law
What is Henry's Law?
The law, which was first formulated in 1803 by the english physician and chemist
William Henry
, holds only fordilute solutions and low gas pressures. According to
Henry's law
:- The solubility of a gas in a solvent is directlyproportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the solvent. This relationship is written as:Where
is a temperature-dependent constant,
is the partial pressure (atm) of the solute in the gas above thesolution, and
is the concentration of the dissolved gas in the liquid (mol/L). The units on
depend on the unitsused for concentration and pressure.
Gas Solubility
The gas solubility
is defined as the number of standard cubic feet of gas which will dissolve in one stock-tank barrel of crude oil at certain pressure and temperature. The solubility of a natural gas in a crude oil is a strongfunction of the pressure, temperature, API gravity, and gas gravity. For a particular gas and crude oil to exist at aconstant temperature, the solubility increases with pressure until the saturation pressure is reached.At the saturation pressure
(bubble point pressure)
all the available gases are dissolved in the oil and the gassolubility reaches its maximum value. Rather than measuring the amount of gas that will dissolve in a given stock-
tank crude oil as the pressure is increased, it is customary to determine the amount of gas that will come out of asample of reservoir crude oil as pressure decreases.A typical gas solubility curve, as a function of pressure for an under saturated crude oil, is shown in above. As thepressure is reduced from the initial reservoir pressure pi, to the bubble point pressure pb, no gas evolves from the oiland consequently the gas solubility remains constant at its maximum value of 
. Below the bubble pointpressure, the solution gas is liberated and the value of 
decreases with pressure.
What Is Bubble Point Pressure?
bubble point pressure
is defined as the pressure at which the first gas bubble appears while decreasing thepressure on the fluid sample. To determine when the first gas bubble appears is a very challenging and experimentaltask.
The bubble point pressure
of a hydrocarbon system is defined as the highest pressure at which a bubbleof gas is first liberated from the oil. This important property can be measured experimentally for a crude oil systemby conducting a constant-composition expansion test.In the absence of the experimentally measured bubble point pressure, it is necessary for the engineer to make anestimate of this crude oil property from the readily available measured producing parameters. Several graphical andmathematical correlations for determining pb have been proposed during the last four decades. These correlationsare essentially based on the assumption that the bubble point pressure is a strong function of Gas solubility
, Gasgravity
, Oil gravity
, and temperature
. Thus
is function of following factors:
pb = f (RS, gg, API, T)Oil formation volume factor
oil formation volume factor (Bo)
, is defined as the ratio of the volume of oil (plus the gas in solution) at theprevailing reservoir temperature and pressure to the volume of oil at standard conditions. Bo is always greater thanor equal to unity (1). The oil formation volume factor can be expressed mathematically as:
Bo = (V o) p, T / (Vo) scWhere
= Oil formation volume factor, bbl/STB

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