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Reservoir Characterization Using Seismic Inversion Data

Reservoir Characterization Using Seismic Inversion Data

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Published by: Mahmoud Eloribi on Oct 07, 2012
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RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION USING SEISMIC INVERSION DATAA DissertationSubmitted to the Graduate Faculty of theLouisiana State University andAgricultural and Mechanical Collegein partial fulfillment of therequirements for the degree of Doctor of PhilosophyinThe Craft & Hawkins Department of Petroleum EngineeringbySubhash KallaB.Tech. in Chemical Engineering, REC Warangal, 2002M.S. in Petroleum Engineering, Louisiana State University, 2005December 2008
 
Acknowledgments
This dissertation would not be possible without several contributions. It is a pleasure tothank my adviser Dr. Christopher D. White. During last six years he encouraged me tobe an independent researcher, gave me freedom in choosing research direction, and offeredstimulating suggestions. It is my pleasure to work with Dr. James Gunning of CSIRO. Iwant to thank him for his thoughtful insights and help in my understanding of Bayesianproblems. I am also grateful to work with Dr. Mike Glinsky of BHP-Billiton PetroleumQuantitative Interpretation and want to thank him for supporting and guiding my research.Every discussion with these three is valuable and educational. This work was motivated bya perceived need to integrate Geoscience and Geostatistics and funded by an unrestrictedgift from BHP-Billiton.I want to thank my committee members Dr. Stephen Sears, Dr. Juan Lorenzo, and Dr.Seung Kam for providing me with valuable suggestions. Special thanks to all the PetroleumEngineering faculty for valuable discussions.I extend many thanks to my friends especially Hong Tang, Xin Li, Shengkai Duan, andCharisma Lattao and colleagues especially Mike Shook of Chevron, Ricard Sech of Exxon-Mobil and Bill Cleary of BHP-Billiton for their valuable guidance.Finally, I’d like to thank my family. My father and mother have been constant sources of support and encouragement. My brother, even though younger, switched roles and advisedme critically. My wife enchanted me with her care and support.This dissertation is dedicated to my parents.ii
 
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments ........................................................ iiList of Tables ............................................................. viiList of Figures ............................................................ viiiAbstract .................................................................. xChapter 1: Introduction .................................................. 1
1.1 Geomodeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1 Challenges in Geomodeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.2 Geomodel Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Geology Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2.1 Data Types and Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2.2 Clastics Sedimentology Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.2.3 Stratigraphy Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2.4 Modeling Clastic Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.3 Seismic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3.1 Synthetic Seismic at Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3.2 Structure Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.3.3 Stratigraphic Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141.3.4 Reservoir Properties Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141.4 Seismic Inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141.4.1 Rock Physics Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151.4.2 Seismic Parameter Inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171.5 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.6 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201.7 Signicance of the Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201.8 Current Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.9 Outline of Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Chapter 2: Downscaling of Seismic Inversion Inexact Thickness ........... 25
2.1 Integrating Geologic, Seismic and Well Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.1.1 Nature of the Seismic Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262.1.2 Summary of Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272.1.3 Use of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282.2 Problem Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292.2.1 Truncated Proxy for Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.2.2 Algorithm Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.2.3 Estimating the Prior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.2.4 Zero Thickness Conditioning Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332.2.5 The Posterior Resolution Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.3 Prior and Likelihood Distributions in 2D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36iii

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