Le Chatelier's principle3moles of gas. There is no effect on a reaction where the number of moles of gas is the same on each side of thechemical equation.
Effect of adding an inert gas
An inert gas (or noble gas) such as helium is one that does not react with other elements or compounds. Adding aninert gas into a gas-phase equilibrium at constant volume does not result in a shift.
This is because the addition of anon-reactive gas does not change the partial pressures of the other gases in the container. While it is true that thetotal pressure of the system increases, the total pressure does not have any effect on the equilibrium constant; rather,it is a change in partial pressures that will cause a shift in the equilibrium. If, however, the volume is allowed toincrease in the process, the partial pressures of all gases would be decreased resulting in a shift towards the side withthe greater number of moles of gas. There is a short form to remember this: LBMF (little boy married fiona); Lstands for less pressure, B - backward reaction, M - more pressure, and F - forward reaction.
Effect of a catalyst
A catalyst has no effect on equilibrium. But speeds up both forward and backward reactions equally.Eg:N2+3 H2
2NH3Here Iron(Fe) and Molybdenum (Mo)are catalysts, but the two catalysts does not affect the state of equilibrium .Hence a catalyst has no effect on equilibrium state.
Applications in economics
In economics, a similar concept also named after Le Chatelier was introduced by US economist Paul Samuelson in1947. There the generalized Le Chatelier principle is for a maximum condition of economic equilibrium: Where allunknowns of a function are independently variable, auxiliary constraints
"just-binding" in leaving initialequilibrium unchanged
reduce the response to a parameter change. Thus, factor-demand and commodity-supplyelasticities are hypothesized to be lower in the short run than in the long run because of the fixed-cost constraint inthe short run.
Gall, John (2002).
The Systems Bible
ed.). General Systemantics Press. "
The System always kicks back
""The Biophysical Basis for the Graphical Representations" (http:/
htm). . Retrieved 2009-05-04.Kay, J. J. (February 2000) . "Application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Le Chatelier's Principle to the DevelopingEcosystem". In Muller, F..
Handbook of Ecosystem Theories and Management
. Environmental & Ecological (Math) Modeling. CRC Press.ISBN 978-1-56670-253-9. "
As systems are moved away from equilibrium, they will utilize all available avenues to counter the applied gradients
... Le Chatelier's principle is an example of this equilibrium seeking principle."
For full details, see
Ecosystems as Self-organizing Holarchic Open Systems: Narratives and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
. p. 5.CiteSeerX: 10.1.1.11.856 (http:/
856).Atkins1993, p. 114Samuelson, Paul A (1983).
Foundations of Economic Analysis
. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-31301-1.