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Year Term Diseases on Chilli

Year Term Diseases on Chilli

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Published by: Jatu Ingindsegeralulus Percayalah on Oct 08, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Capsicum annum
L.)Jatu Barmawati (5410001273)ANTRACNOSE(
Colletrotichum capsici, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotricum acutatumColletotrichum coccodes
)1.Economic importance
Anthracnoses (from anthrax = carbon = black) are caused by fungi that produce conidiawithin black acervuli. Antrachnose can attack chilli from all growth stage from pre-harvestuntil post-harvest stage. This pathogen reported can make 84% crop losses when rainyseason and develop in high humidity after fruits started to ripen. This diseases caused bymany species of Colletotrichum,
Colletrotichum capsici, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides,Colletotricum acutatum Colletotrichum coccodes.
This fungi have teleomoph as
Glomerella cingulata
an include in Deutromycetes and Acomycetes fungi.
The disease appears as small circular spots that coalesce to form large elliptical spots onfruits and leaves. Under severe conditions, defoliation of affected plants occurs.
Thedisease has been observed to occur in three phases, they are: (i) Seedling blight or dampingoff, ii) Leaf spot and die back, and (iii) Anthracnose or fruit rot.
Source : Antrachnose Diseases of Chilli Pepper Technical Bulletin, 2009.
The disease is characterized by the appearance of small black circular spots on the skin of the fruits that spread in the direction of the long axis, thus becoming more or less elliptical.As the infection progresses, the spots get either diffused and black, greenish or dirty grey incolor or they are markedly delimited by a thick and sharp black outline enclosing a lighter  black or straw colored area. In some cases, the lesions are brown, and then turn black fromthe formation of setae and sclerotia. Severe infection results in change of fruit colour fromred to straw or white. Numerous acervuli are scattered on the discoloured area of theinfected fruit. When a diseased fruit is cut open, the lower surface of the skin is coveredwith minute, spherical, black somatic masses or sclerotia of the fungus. A mat of fungalhyphae covers the seeds. Such seeds turn rusty in color. Affected fruits are deformed, whitein color and lose their pungency. Ultimately, the diseased fruit shrivels and dry up.
Green fruit may also be infected but symptoms will not appear until the fruit ripens atharvest time. Such an infection is called latent. Young fruit infected by C.
canhave visible symptom development.
Primary host of this pathogen is chili, and the alternative host is another Solanaceae andweeds.
4.Life cycle
Source : Agrios, 2005
5.Pathogen survival
The fungus survives in and on seeds. Anthracnose is introduced into the field on infectedtransplants or survives between seasons in plant debris or on weed hosts. Alternative hostsinclude other Solanaceae (tomato, potato, eggplant).Fruits are infected when spores of the fungus or infested debris are rain splashed onto chilli plants. New spores are produced within the infected tissue and are then dispersed to other fruits.

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