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The Beatles, The True History

The Beatles, The True History

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Published by Aarón Altamirano
The Beatles, The True History
The Beatles, The True History

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Published by: Aarón Altamirano on Oct 08, 2012
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The Beatles1
The Beatles
The Beatles
The Beatles in 1964Top: John Lennon, Paul McCartneyBottom: George Harrison, Ringo Starr
Background informationOrigin
Liverpool, England
Genres
Rock, pop
Years active
1960
 – 
1970
Labels
Parlophone, Swan, Vee-Jay, Capitol, United Artists, Apple
Associated acts
The Quarrymen
Website
[thebeatles.com thebeatles.com]
MembersPrincipal
John Lennon (1960
 – 
69)Paul McCartney (1960
 – 
70)George Harrison (1960
 – 
70)Ringo Starr (1962
 – 
70)
Other
Stuart Sutcliffe (1960
 – 
61)Pete Best (1960
 – 
62)
The Beatles
were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. They becamethe most commercially successful and critically acclaimed act in the history of popular music.
[1][2]
The band's best-known lineup consistedof John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. Rooted in skiffle and 1950s rock and roll, thegroup later utilised several genres, ranging from pop ballads to psychedelic rock, often incorporating classical andother elements in innovative ways. In the early 1960s, their enormous popularity first emerged as "Beatlemania", butas their songwriting grew in sophistication, they came to be perceived by many fans and cultural observers as anembodiment of the ideals shared by the era's sociocultural revolutions.The Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960.Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act and producer George Martin enhanced their musicalpotential. They gained popularity in the United Kingdom after their first single, "Love Me Do", became a modest hit
 
The Beatles2in late 1962. They acquired the nickname the "Fab Four" as Beatlemania grew inBritain over the following year, andby early 1964 they had become international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market.From 1965 on, they produced what many critics consider their finest material, including the innovative and widelyinfluential albums
 Rubber Soul
(1965),
 Revolver 
(1966),
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band 
(1967),
The Beatles
(1968), and
 Abbey Road 
(1969). After their break-up in 1970, the ex-Beatles each found success in individualmusical careers. Lennon was murdered in 1980, and Harrison died of cancer in 2001. McCartney and Starr remainactive.The Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with EMI Records estimating sales of over one billion units.
[3]
Theyhave had more number-one albums on the British charts andsold more singles in the UK than any other act.According to the RIAA, as of 2012 they have sold 177 million units in the US, more than any other artist. In 2008,they topped
 Billboard 
magazine's list of the all-time most successful Hot 100 artists. As of 2012, they hold the recordfor most number-one hits on the Hot 100 chart with 20. They have received 7 Grammy Awards from the AmericanNational Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, an Academy Award for Best Original Song Score and 15 IvorNovello Awards from the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers and Authors. They were collectivelyincluded in
Time
magazine's compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people.
Formation, Hamburg, and UK popularity (1957
 –
1962)
In March 1957, John Lennon, then aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank school. They brieflycalled themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was already using the name.
[4]
Fifteen-year-oldPaul McCartney joined as arhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July.
[5]
In February 1958 McCartney invited his friend GeorgeHarrison to watch the group. The fourteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, who was impressed by his playing butinitially thought him too young for the band. After a month of persistence, Harrison joined as lead guitarist.
[6][7]
ByJanuary 1959 Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, and he began studies at the Liverpool College of Art.
[8]
The three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny andthe Moondogs,
[9]
were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer.
[10]
Lennon's art school friend Stu Sutcliffe, who had recently sold oneof his paintings and purchased a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, and it was he who suggested changing theband's name to Beatals as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
[11]
They used the name through May, when theybecame the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellowLiverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July they changed their name to the Silver Beatles, and by the middle of August to the Beatles.
[12]
Their lack of a full-time drummer posed a problem when the group's unofficial manager, Allan Williams, arranged aresident band booking for them in Hamburg, Germany, so in mid August they auditioned and hired Pete Best. Theband, now a five-piece, left four days later, contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a3½-month residency.
[13]
Beatles' historian Mark Lewisohn wrote, "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August,the time when the red-light area comes to life ... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer,while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities".
[14]
Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues and he initially placed the groupat the Indra Club. After closing the Indra due to noise complaints, he moved them to the Kaiserkeller in October.
[15]
When he learned they had been performing at the rival Top Ten Club in breach of contract, he gave the band onemonth's termination notice,
[16]
and reported the underage Harrison, who had obtained permission to stay in Hamburgby lying to the German authorities about his age.
[17]
Harrison was deported in late November,
[18]
and a week laterKoschmider had McCartney and Best arrested for arson after they set fire to a tapestry on the wall in their room; theywere also deported.
[19]
Lennon returned to Liverpool in early December, while Sutcliffe remained in Hamburgthrough late February with his German fiancée Astrid Kirchherr,
[20]
who took the first semi-professional photos of the band members.
[21]
 
The Beatles3During the next two years, the group were resident for periods in Hamburg, where they used Preludin bothrecreationally and to maintain their energy through all-night performances.
[22]
In 1961, during their second Hamburgengagement, Kirchherr cut Sutcliffe's hair in the "exi" (existentialist), style that was later adopted by the otherBeatles.
[23][24]
When Sutcliffe decided to leave the band early that year and resume his art studies in Germany,McCartney took up the bass.
[25]
Producer Bert Kaempfert contracted what was now a four-piece group through June1962, and he used them as Tony Sheridan's backing band on a series of recordings.
[26]
Credited to "Tony Sheridan &The Beat Brothers", the single "My Bonnie", recorded in June 1961 and released four months later, reached number32 on the
 Musikmarkt 
chart.
[27]
After completing their second Hamburg residency, the group enjoyed increasing popularity in Liverpool, particularlyin Merseyside, where the Merseybeat movement was building. However, they were also growing tired of themonotony of numerous appearances at the same clubs night after night.
[28]
In November, during one of the group'sfrequent appearances at the Cavern Club, they encountered Brian Epstein, a local record store owner and musiccolumnist.
[29]
He later recalled, "I immediately liked what I heard. They were fresh and they were honest, and theyhad what I thought was a sort of presence and ... star quality."
[30]
Epstein courted the band over the next couple of months and was appointed manager in January 1962.
[31]
Throughout the winter and spring, he sought to free themfrom their contractual obligations to Bert Kaempfert Productions. After an early February audition, Decca Recordsrejected the band with the comment "Guitar groups are on the way out, Mr. Epstein".
[32]
He ultimately negotiated forthe band to provide one last recording session in Hamburg, at the end of May, and a month-early release from theircontract.
[33]
Tragedy greeted them upon their return to Germany in April, when a distraught Kirchherr met them atthe airport with news of Sutcliffe's death the previous day from what would later be determined a brainhaemorrhage.
[34]
The following month, George Martin signed the group to EMI's Parlophone label.
[34]Abbey Road Studios main entrance
The Beatles' first recording session under Martin's direction took placeat EMI's Abbey Road Studios in London on 6 June 1962.
[35]
Martinimmediately complained to Epstein about Best's poor drumming andsuggested they use a session drummer in his stead.
[36]
The Beatles,already contemplating Best's dismissal,
[37]
replaced him in mid-Augustwith Ringo Starr, who left Rory Storm and the Hurricanes to jointhem.
[35]
A 4 September session at EMI yielded a recording of "LoveMe Do" featuring Starr on drums, but a dissatisfied Martin hireddrummer Andy White for the band's third session a week later, whichproduced recordings of "Love Me Do", "Please Please Me" and "P.S. ILove You".
[35]
Martin initially selected the Starr version of "Love Me Do" for the band's first single, thoughsubsequent re-pressings featured the White version, with Starr on tambourine.
[35]
Released in early October, "LoveMe Do" peaked at number seventeen on the
 Record Retailer 
chart.
[38]
The Beatles' television début came later thatmonth with a live performance on the regional news programme
 People and Places
.
[39]
A studio session in lateNovember yielded another recording of "Please Please Me",
[40]
of which Martin accurately predicted, "You've justmade your first No.1."
[41]
In December 1962, the band concluded their fifth and final Hamburg stint.
[42]
By 1963, it was agreed that all fourmembers would contribute vocals to their albums
 —
including Starr, despite his restricted vocal range, to validate hisstanding in the group.
[43]
Lennon and McCartney had established a songwriting partnership, and as the band'ssuccess grew, their dominant collaboration limited Harrison's opportunities as a lead vocalist.
[44]
Epstein, wanting tomaximize their commercial potential, encouraged the group to adopt a professional attitude to performing.
[45]
Lennon recalled him saying, "Look, if you really want to get in these bigger places, you're going to have tochange
 —
stop eating on stage, stop swearing, stop smoking".
[46]
Lennon said, "We used to dress how we liked, onand off stage. He'd tell us that jeans were not particularly smart and could we possibly manage to wear propertrousers, but he didn't want us suddenly looking square. He'd let us have our own sense of individuality".
[46]

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