Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
IGNOU MATH MTE 01

IGNOU MATH MTE 01

Ratings: (0)|Views: 99|Likes:
Published by Er.BHASKAR
MATHEMATICS (MTE 01) FOR BDP
MATHEMATICS (MTE 01) FOR BDP

More info:

Published by: Er.BHASKAR on Oct 09, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/22/2014

pdf

text

original

 
UNIT
1
REAL
NUMBERS
AND
FUNCTIONS
Structure
1.1 Introduction
Objectives
1.2
Basic Properties of R
1.3
Absolute Value1.4 Intervals on the Real Line1.5 Functions
Definition
and
ExamplesInverse FunctionsGraphs of Inverse Functions
1.6 New Functions from Old
Operations on FunctionsComposite of Functions
1.7 Types of Functions
Even and Odd FunctionsMonotone FunctionsPeriodic Functions
1.8
Summary
1.9
Solutions and Answers
1.1
INTRODUCTION
This is the first unit of the course on Calculus. We thought it would be a
good
idea toacquaint you with some basic results about the real number system and functions, before youactually start your study of Calculus. Perhaps, you are already familiar with these results.But,
a
quick look through the pages will help you in refreshing your memory, and you willbe ready to tackle the course.In the next three sections of this unit, we shall present some results about the real numbersystem. You will find a number of examples of various types of functions in Sections
5
to
7.
You should also study the graphs of these functions carefully. It is very important to be ableto visualise a given function. In fact,
try
to draw a graph whenever you encounter a newfunction. We shall svstematically study the tracing of curves in Unit
9.
Objectives
After reading this unit you should be able to:recall the basic properties of real numbers,derive other properties with the help of the basic ones,identify various types of bounded and unbounded intervals,define a function and examine whether a given function is one-oneJonto,investigate whether a given function has an inverse or not,define the scalar multiple, absolute value, sum, difference, product, quotient of thegiven functions,determine whether a given function is even, odd, monotonic or periodic.
1.2
BASIC PROPERTIES OF R
In the next three sections, we are going to tell you about the set
R
of real numbers, which isall-pervading in mathematics. The real number system is the foundation on which a largepart of mathematics, including calculus, rests. Thus, before we actually start learningcalculus, it is necessary to understand the structure of the real number system.you are already familiar with the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication anddivision of real numbers, and with inequalities. Here we shall quickly recall some of theirproperties. We start with the operation of addition:
 
,
Elements
of
DifferentialCalculus
A1
R
is closed under addition.
If x and y are real numbers, then x
+
y is a unique real number.
A2 Addition is associative.
x
+
(y
+
z)
=
(X
+
y)
+
z
holds for all x, y, z in
R
.
A3 Zero exists.
There is a real number 0 such thatx+O=O+x=xforallxinR.
A4 Negatives exist.
For each real number x, there exists a real number y (called a negative or an additiveinverse 06-x, and denoted by -x) such that x
+
y
=
y
+
x
=
0.
A5 Addition is commutative.
x
+
y
=
y
+
x holds for all x, y in
R
.
Similar to these properties of addition, we can also list some properties of the operation ofmultiplication:
M1
R
is closed under multiplication.
If
x
and y are real numbers, then x.y is a unique re
J
umber.
M2 Multiplicatim-is associative.
x
.
(y
.
z)
=
(X y).~olds for all x, y,
z
in R
.
M3 Unit element exists.
There exists a real number 1 such thatx. 1=1 .x=xforeveryxinR.
M4 -Inversesexist.
For each real number x other than 0,there exists a real number y (called a multiplicativeinverse of x and denoted by x-'! or by l/x) such thatxy
=
yx,=
1.
M5 Multiplication is commutative.
xy
=
yx holds for all x, y in
R.
The next property involves addition as well as multiplication.
D
Multiplication is distr-ihutiveover addition.
x(y
+
z
)
=
xy
+
xz holds for all x, y,
z
n R
Remark 1:
The fact that the above eleven properties are satisfied is often expressed by
You
may have
come
acrossa
"field"
saying that the real numbers form afield with respect to the usual addition and
in
the
course
on
Linear
Algebra.
multiplication operations.In addition to the above mentioned properties, we can also define an order relation on Rwith the.help of which we can compare any two real numbers. We write x
>
y to mean that xis greater than y. 'The order relation
'>'
has the following properties:
01 Law of Trichotomy holds.
For any two real numbers a,
b,
one and only one of the following holds:a>b,a=b,b>a.
02
5'
is transitive.Ifa>bandb>c,thena>c,+a,b,c~
R.
03 Addition is monotone.
Ifa,
b,
c, inR aresuch thata>b, thena+c>b+c.
04 Multiplication is monotone id the following sense.
Ifa,b,cinRaresuchthata>bandc>O,thenac>bc.
Caution:a>bandc<~+ac<bc.Remark 2:
Any field together with a relation
>
satisfying 01 to
04
s called an
orderedfield.
Thus
R
with the usual
>
is an example of an ordered field.
Notations:
We write x
<
y (and read x is less than y) to mean y
Y
x. We wAte x
I
(andread x is less than or equal to y) to mean either x
<
y or x
=
y. We write x
2
y (and read x isgreater than or equal to y) if either
x
>
y or x
=
y.A number x is said to be positive or negative according as x
>
0 or x
<
0. If x
2
, we shythat x is non-negative.NOW, ou know that given any number
x
E
W,
we can always find a number y
E
R such thaty
2
X.
(In fact, there
are
infinitely many such real numbers y). Let us see what happkhs when
 
we take
any
sub-set of
R
instead of a single real number x.
Do
yo11
think
that, given a set
Real
NumMrs
and
Functions
+i
SC
R,
it
is possible
tq
find u
E
R such that u
2
x
for
ad
x
E
S
Before we
try
to answer this question, let us look at a definition.
stj~
Definition
1
Let
S
be a subset of
R.
An element u in
R
is said to
be
an upper bound of
S
if
&
I
$li
u
2
x holds fot every x in
S.
We say that
S
is bounded above, if there is an upper bound of
S.
-ill
hS
Now we can reword our earlier questions as follows
:
Is
it possible to find an upper boundfor
a
given set
?
Let us consider the set Z-=
1-1,
-
2,
-
3,
-
4,
.I
Now, each x
E
Z-is negative.
Or,
in other words,
x
<
0
for all x
E
Z
.
Yb
you
see,
itr
thiscase we
are
able to find an upper bound, namely zero, for our set Z-
y
On
the other hand, if we consider the set of natural numvers,
N
=
{
1,2,3
&..
,
obvimsly
we
will not
be
able to find an upper bound.
Thus
N
is not bounded aborc.
Yett
wiN,
f
course, realise that
if
u is an upper bound for a set
S
then u
+
1,
u
+
2,
u
+
3,
....,
(in fact, wr, where r is any positive number) are all uppr$naqds
nf
S.
For example,
we
have seen that 0 is an upper bound for Z-. Check that 1,2,3,4.R.
.
.
are
dl
upper boundsof
Z,
5
$'
From among all the upper bounds of a set
S,
which is bounded above, we can choose an
2:
upper bound u such that u is less than or equal to every upper bound of
S.
We call this u the
d.
2g
least upper bound or the supremum of
S.
For example, consider the set
$dt
'$1
T=(x
E
R:x214)
{XE
R
:-2<x<2)Now 2,3,3.5,4,4
+
~r
re all upper bwnds for this
set.
But you will see that 2 is less than any other upper bound.Hence 2 is the supremum or the least upper bound of
T.
You will agree that
-1
is the 1.u.b. (least upper bound) of Z,Note that forboth the
setsT
and
Z-,
he 1.u.b. belonged to the set. This may not be true mgeneral. Consider the set of all negative real numbers
R-
{x
:
x
<
0). The 1.u.b. of this set
,
is
0.
But 0
ei
R-.Working on similar lines we can also define a lower bound for a given set
S
to be a realnumber v such that v
5
x
for all
x
E
S.
We shall say that a set is bounded below, if we canfind a lower bound for it. Further, the lower bound ofSwhich is greater than any otherlower bound of
S
will be called its infimum or greatest lower bound (g.1.b.).
As
in
the
case of l.u.b., remember that the g.1.b. of a set may or may not belong to the set.We shall say that a set
S
c
R
is bounded if it has both an upper bound
and
a
lower bound.
>.I
t
Based on this discussion you will be able to solve the following ekercise.
E
E
1) Give examples to illustrate the fouowing:a) A set of real numbers havlng a lower bound,b) A set of real numbers without any lower bound,c) A set of
real
numbers whose g.1.b. does not belong to it,d)
A
bounded set of real numbers.