The goal of the coding or programming phase is to translate the design of the system produced duringthe design phase into code in a given programming language, which can be executed by a computer and that performs the computation specified by the design. For a given design, the aim is to implement the design inthe best possible manner. The coding phase affects testing and maintenance. During implementation, it should be kept in mind that the programs should not be constructed so that they are easy to write, but so that they areeast to read and understand.” Quick Fixes” to modify a given code easily, result in a code that is more difficultto understand. Ease of understanding and modification should be the basic goals of the programmingactivity .Simplicity and clarity is desirable.
The primary goal of the coding phase is to translate the given design into source code, so that the codeis simple, easy to test and easy to understand and modify.Good programming is a skill that can only be acquired by practice. Much can be learned from theexperience of others, and some general rules and guidelines can be laid for the programmer. Good programming is a practice independent of the target programming language. Some concepts related to codingis discussed.1. )
Top Down and Bottom Up
Given the hierarchy of modules produced by design, in what order should the modules be built staringfrom top level or starting from bottom level.In top down implementation, the implementation starts from top of the hierarchy and proceeds to the lower levels. First the main module is implemented, then its subordinates are implemented, and their subordinatesand so on.In a bottom-up implementation, the process is the reverse. The development starts with implementing themodules at the bottom of the hierarchy and proceeds through the higher levels until it reaches the top. Top-down and bottom-up shouldn’t be confused with top-down design. Here the design is being implemented, andif the design is fairly detailed and complete, its implementation can proceed in either top-down manner. Whichof the two is used mostly affects testing.The main reason is that we want to incrementally build the system that is, we want to build the systemin parts, even though the design of the entire system has been done all large systems must be built and testedseparately, the issue of top-down versus bottom-up arises. The real issue in which order modules are coded1