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Respiratory UpperRT Tonsillitise PharmaPedia PharmaGates

Respiratory UpperRT Tonsillitise PharmaPedia PharmaGates

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Published by Islam Fawzy

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Published by: Islam Fawzy on Oct 09, 2012
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11/23/2013

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this material is free to be used in any educational procedure, downloaded , copied or shared once used without any content modification
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Tonsillitis
Tonsillitis
is aninflammationof thetonsilsmost commonly caused by viral or bacterial infection.Symptoms of tonsillitis includesore throatandfever.  While no treatment has been found to shorten the duration of viraltonsillitis, bacterial causes are treatable with antibiotics.
CAUSES:
microbiological point of view:The most common causes of tonsillitis are the common coldviruses
It can also
 The second most common causes are bacterial.
 
The most common bacterial cause is Group A β
-hemolyticstreptococcus(GABHS), which causes strep throat. 
Less common bacterial causes include
:
,
,
,
 mechanism of action
Under normal circumstances,
as viruses and bacteria enter the body through the nose and mouth
, theyare filtered in thetonsils.Within the tonsils, white blood cellsof the immune system mount an
attack
that helpsdestroy the viruses or bacteria, and also
causes
inflammation and fever The infection may also be present inthethroatand surrounding areas, causing inflammation of thepharynx.This is the area in the back of the throat that lies between the voice boxand the tonsils.
Symptoms:
Common symptoms of tonsillitis include:
 
red and/or swollen tonsils
white or yellow patches on the tonsils
tender, stiff, and/or swollen neck
sore throat
painful or difficult swallowing
cough
headache
sore eyes
body aches
fever 
 
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chills
nasal congestions Acute tonsillitis is caused by both bacteria and viruses and will be accompanied by symptoms of ear pain whenswallowing, bad breath, sore throat and fever.In this case, the
surface of the tonsil
may be
bright red or have a grayish-white coating
, while the
 in the neck may be
 occur in up to 10% of the population frequently due to episodes of tonsillitis.
 
Treatment:
Pharmacological point of view:
Treatments to reduce the discomfort from tonsillitis symptoms include
pain relief, anti-inflammatory, fever reducing medications (
acetaminophen/paracetamol and/oribuprofen
)
reye’s syndrome
paracetamol
 
sore throat relief (salt water gargle, lozenges, warm liquids)
 
If 
 
the tonsillitis is caused bygroup A streptococus,thenantibioticsare useful with 
 being first line. A 
such as 
is used for patients allergic to penicillin. Patients who fail
 
penicillin therapy may respond to treatment effective against beta-lactamase producing bacteria such as
o
.Aerobic and anaerobic beta lactamase producing bacteria thatreside in the tonsillar tissues can "shield" group A streptococcus from penicillins. When tonsillitis is caused by a virus,the length of illness depends on which virus is involved. Usually, acomplete recovery is made within one week; however may last for up to two weeks.
Chroniccases may betreated withtonsillectomy(surgical removal of tonsils) as a choice for treatment
. 
1.
 
pain relief, anti-inflammatory, fever reducing medication
A: acetaminophen /paracetamolmechanism of action:cox3 inhibitor act as analgesic & antipyretic no anti-inflammatory effectcentral effect is> preferable effect
(cox3 is isoform of cox 2 but in brain)
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.
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paracetamolcetal 100dps,120supp,250syr,500tab
 
panadol 500,oblong,
 
actifast, extraabimol150,300
 
adol cap,adol extra tab pyral 100dps,120syr, 250supp,500tab
 
paramol 120syr,
 
125supp 500tab

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