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BlackHoleThermodynamics - Ross

BlackHoleThermodynamics - Ross

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Published by roypkin
Black Hole Thermodynamics explained in a lucid manner.
Black Hole Thermodynamics explained in a lucid manner.

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Published by: roypkin on Oct 09, 2012
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05/22/2014

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DCPT-05/05hep-th/0502195
Black hole thermodynamics
Simon F. Ross
Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, U.K.
Abstract
These notes introduce basic aspects of black hole thermodynamics. I reviewthe classical laws of black hole mechanics, give a brief introduction to theessential concepts of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, and derive theUnruh and Hawking effects. I conclude with a discussion of entropy from theEuclidean path integral point of view and in the context of the AdS/CFTcorrespondence. Originally delivered as a set of lectures at the PIMS summerschool “Strings, Gravity and Cosmology” in August 2004.
S.F.Ross@durham.ac.uk
1
 
Contents
2.1 Horizons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.2 Near-horizon structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1 Area theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93.2 Zeroth and first laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1 Canonical quantisation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154.2 Peierls bracket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174.3 Observables & Hadamard states. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194.4 KMS condition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.1 Unruh radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235.2 Hawking radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1 Introduction
The aim of these notes is to provide a brief introduction to the basic ideas of black holethermodynamics. The principal aim is to explain the association of a temperatureand entropy with stationary black holes,
=
 
κ
2
π,
=
A
4
G
 
,
(1.1)where
κ
is the black hole’s surface gravity and
A
is the area of the event horizon.This is not intended as a review article; this is a large subject, and there are aspectsI am not expert enough to review. It will reflect my own perspective, filtered throughthe desire to present a hopefully useful pedagogical introduction. I will focus onproviding an explanation of the key results in the simplest possible contexts. Twopoints I intend to highlight are the universality of the results—the relations (1.1)apply to any stationary black hole
1
—and the central role of regularity at the eventhorizon in the derivation of the thermodynamic properties. I will emphasise theEuclidean point of view on black hole thermodynamics.
1
This is for Einstein’s general relativity. To extend it to theories with higher-curvature terms inthe Lagrangian, the expression for the entropy in (1.1) is replaced by a more general integral overthe event horizon, as described in section3.2.
 
Other useful introductory reviews are [1,2, 3, 4, 5,6]. An in-depth discussion of the derivation of Hawking radiation is given in[7], and the connection betweenKilling horizons and thermal properties is discussed at length in [8]. Most monographson quantum field theory in curved spacetime include some discussion of black holethermodynamics (see the list of references later in the introduction): a particularlycomprehensive discussion is given in [9]. The recent textbook [10] also has a nice treatment of the subject. For detailed discussion of black holes and string theory,see [11,12]. Black hole thermodynamics has continued to fascinate researchers over the 30years since Hawking’s discovery of the thermal radiation from black holes [13,14]be- cause it provides a real connection between gravity and quantum mechanics. Therelation between geometrical properties of the event horizon and thermodynamicquantities provides a clear indication that there is a relation between properties of the spacetime geometry and some kind of quantum physics. The thermodynamic be-haviour (1.1) should have a statistical interpretation in quantum gravity, and henceit provides clues to the form of the quantisation of gravity. In string theory in partic-ular, the scaling of 
with the area was argued to imply that the fundamental theorycannot have local bulk degrees of freedom in the same way as an ordinary quantumfield theory [15,16, 17], and the understanding of these relations in a string theory context and providing them with a natural statistical explanation has been one of the driving forces in the revolution which has taken us beyond the formulation of string theory in terms of string scattering in a fixed background spacetime to a fullynon-perturbative formulation of the theory through the AdS/CFT dualities (see forexample the review[18]).The study of black hole thermodynamics also played an important role in the de-velopment of quantum field theory in curved spacetime. This is a subject of consider-able physical importance in its own right, playing an important role in, for example,the very early universe (see the lectures by Robert Brandenburger at this school, orthe notes online from another set of lectures [19]). The study of such curved back-grounds has also expanded our understanding of quantum field theory in general.These notes begin with a review of the relevant features of the classical black holegeometries, stressing the distinction between Killing and event horizons, in section2. Idescribe the evidence for an analogy between black hole dynamics and thermodynam-ics at the classical level in section3. Although this is the oldest part of the subject,new developments are still occurring. I give a basic introduction to quantum fieldtheory in curved spacetime in section4, introducing the technology required to under-stand the argument for black hole thermodynamics. This is not meant as a completeintroduction to this rich subject, and the interested reader would be well-advised toconsult a more extensive discussion: there are several excellent texts [20, 21, 22,9,23] and reviews (e.g., [24, 25,26,27,28]) which cover it; I particularly recommend the recent review by Jacobson[28], which provides a highly-accessible introduction to themodern viewpoint on this subject. In section5, I will discuss the Unruh effect andHawking radiation, showing how quantum fields on black hole backgrounds behavethermally. Finally, in section6, the lectures finish with a more sketchy discussionof entropy from the Euclidean path-integral point of view and the understanding of 2

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