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Chapter 7 Similitude and Dimensional Analysis

# Chapter 7 Similitude and Dimensional Analysis

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06/05/2014

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SIMILITUDE AND DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
DEFINITION AND USES OF SIMILITUDE
Similitude means similarity
it impossible to determine all the essential facts for a givenfluid flow by pure theory alone
we must often depend on experimental investigations.
we can greatly reduce the number of tests needed bysystematically using dimensional analysis and the laws of similitude or similarity.
Because, these enable us to apply test data to other casesthan those observed.
we can obtain valuable results at a minimum cost fromtests made with small-scale models of the full-sizeapparatus. The laws of similitude enable us to predict theperformance of the
prototype,
which means the full-sizedevice, from tests made with the model. for example, wemight study the flow in a carburetor in a very large model.

A few examples of where we have used models are
Ships in towing basins,
Airplanes in wind tunnels,
Hydraulic turbines,
Centrifugal pumps,
Spillways of dams,
River channels and the study of suchphenomena as the action of waves and tides on
beaches,
Soil erosion and
Transport of sediment.

GEOMETRIC SIMILARITY
geometric similarity

means that the model andits prototype have identical shapes but differ onlyin
size.
the flow patterns must be geometrically similar. If subscripts
p
and
m
denote prototype and model,respectively, we define the
length scale ratios
asthe ratio of the linear dimensions of theprototype to the corresponding dimensions in themodel.
Area ratio
L
2
and volume ratio
L
3
=