Classification Tests Carboxylic Acid and Derivatives
Francese Ilagan, Jose Lacorte, Judy Laureta, Regine Li and
Vicente Romeo M. Macatangay Jr
Organic Chemistry Laboratory
The objective of this experiment was to identify and differentiate the reactivities of carboxylic acid derivatives and todistinguish each carboxylic acid derivatives using different classification tests, namely hydrolysis, alcoholysis, aminolysis andhydroxamic acid test. These tests will yield either positive or negative results. They will determine the presence of the carboxylic acids and itsderivatives.
Carboxylic acids (R-COOH) are polarcompounds which contain a carboxyl group composedof a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group on the samecarbon atom. They are the most abundant of allorganic compounds. Like alcohols, carboxylic aids formstrong intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Most carboxylicacids in fact exist as dimmers which are held togetherby two hydrogen bonds, because of this hydrogenbonding, their boiling points are significantly higherthan other compounds.
Smaller carboxylic acids aresoluble in water, whereas higher carboxylic acidsare less soluble due to the increasinghydrophobic nature of the alkyl chain
. Theselonger chain acids tend to be rather soluble in less-polar solvents such as ethers and alcohols. Otherfunctional group combinations with the carbonyl groupcan be prepared from carboxylic acids, and are usuallytreated as related derivatives. There are five commonclasses of Carboxylic acid derivatives: Acyl Halide,anhydride, ester, amide, nitrile. Although nitriles donot have a carbonyl group, their functional carbonatoms all have the same oxidation state. There aremany ways to synthesize Carboxylic acids. They can beprepared from oxidizing primary alcohols with aqueousCr0
to give carboxylic acids or the can beprepared from nitriles by a hydrolysis reaction with hotaqueous acids or bases.
Hydrolysis of acid derivativesa.
Acyl halides and Acid Anhydridesi.
1 ml of water was placed in atest tube.ii.
10 drops of acetyl chloride/acetic anhydride were added tothe test tube with 1 ml wateriii.
The resulting mixture wasdivided in to two portionsiv.
In the first portion, 1 ml of 2%AgNO
In the second portion, 1 ml of saturated NaHCO
2 ml of 25% NaOH solutionwas added to 1ml of Ethylacetate. the mouth of the testtube was covered with amarble and then subjected to aboiling water bath for 5minutes.ii.
The sample was neutralizedwith 10% HCl solution.c.
1ml of benzamide was treatedwith 5ml of 10% NaOH solutionand was heated to boilingii.
Litmus paper was then heldagainst the mouth of the testtubed.
A mixture of 10 drops of aceticacid, 1 ml ethanol and 5 dropsof conc. H
was heated till