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Figure 2 Atmospheric absorption of millimeterwaves due to fog and rain.
The second graph covers a much broader fre-quency range, from microwave to optical and beyond. Itshows that although rain and fog increase the attenuationof microwave signals the attenuation is still considerablyless at the lower microwave frequencies (up to 15GHz,for example) than at optical frequencies, so that micro-wave frequencies will maintain communication linksand remote sensing observations under conditions whereoptical links will fail.
The basic (approximate) relationship between wave-length and antenna size is
is the angular breadth of the main beam between the3dB points and
is the maximum dimension across theantenna aperture. An aperture of 10 wavelengths willgive a beamwidth of about 6°. At low frequencies thewavelength is large, implying a large antenna. As thefrequency increases the antenna size reduces for a givenbeamwidth but the attenuation of the atmosphere in-creases. A compromise must be made. Note that at-mospheric attenuation is not a problem for satellite-to-satellite links, so these may involve mm-wave frequen-cies and very small antennas.
The use of different frequency bands for different appli-cations has been agreed through various internationalagencies- see below for the allocation from 4990 to 7075MHz.
Allocation to ServicesRegion 1 Region 2 Region 34990 – 5000 FIXEDMOBILE except aeronautical mobileRADIO ASTRONOMYSpace Research (passive)7955350 – 5255 RADIOLOCATIONSpace Research713 7985650 – 5725 RADIOLOCATIONAmateurSpace Research (deep space)664 801 803 804 8055725 – 5850FIXED SATELLITE(Earth-to-space)RADIOLOCATIONAmateur801 803 805806 807 8085850 – 5925FIXEDFIXED-SATELLITE(Earth-to-space)MOBILE8065850 – 5925FIXEDFIXED-SATELLITE(Earth-to-space)MOBILEAmateurRadiolocation8065850 – 5925FIXEDFIXED-SATELLITE(Earth-to-space)MOBILERadiolocation8065850 – 5925 FIXEDFIXED-SATELLITE(Earth-to-space)MOBILE791 809
Region 1: Europe, Africa, N Asia; Region 2: N &S America; Region 3: rest of Asia
Upper case entries eg FIXED indicate a
for the service in the frequency band.Lower case entries show services that
Numbers - such as 795 - refer to regulations whichapply to the frequency band.
ORBITING AND GEOSTATIONARYSATELLITES2.3.1
lower orbits - cheaper to launch. Eg remote sensingsatellites at about 800km altitude (about 1/8 earth ra-dius).
not available all the time for communication links
ideal for collecting data - eg remote sensing - trans-mitting data back periodically to fixed earth sta-tions. Earth coverage obtained by rotation of earthbeneath satellite.