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The mistery of the Yellow Emperor

The mistery of the Yellow Emperor

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Published by: Luisa on Jan 20, 2009
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Emperor Huang-tiMysteries of the Yellow EmperorPaul StonehillEvidence of 'Fifth Ancient Civilization' Found in ChinaChinese and Japanese archaeologists claim they have discovered in China'ssouthwestern province of Sichuan evidence of the fifth ancient civilization,Japan's Kyodo News reported Monday, October 28 1996. The evidence is an earthenstage, unearthed during a joint archaeology project and estimated to date back4,500 years. It was found among the remains of an ancient castle near the banks ofthe Yangtze River 56 miles (90 km) southwest of the city of Chengdu. Thearchaeologists involved in the excavation project explain that the earthen stage,pointing to an advanced knowledge of construction techniques by those who builtit, reinforces the possibility of a fifth civilization. The world's four oldestcivilizations are known as Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus and China's Yellow River.Carbon isotope analysis on earthenware found at the excavation site was used tohelp identify the age of the castle and stage.It is a very significant discovery . We may be closer to solving the enigma of the"Yellow Emperor," Huang-ti (27th century B.C.), who, it is said, lived in thosemisty reaches of time before the Shang dynasty.In the beginningArchaeological evidence suggests that China is one of the cradles of the humanrace. The earliest known human in China, whose fossilized skull was unearthed inShanxi Province in 1963, is believed to date back to 600,000 BC.Around the 4th or 3rd millennium BC, in the New Stone Age, great changes occurredin the lives of the ancient Chinese. Larger numbers of people began livingtogether at settled places, cultivating land, and domesticating animals. Thesepeople made polished stone tools and built shelters in pit dwellings and beehivehuts that were covered with reed roofs. Such villages were found mostly in thearea of the great bend of the Huang He on the North China Plain. Despite itssevere winters, this area was well suited to agriculture. In fact, it closelyresembled the other cradles of ancient civilizations, such as the valley of theNile in Egypt. As we will see, this is an important fact, because there are otherstriking similarities between the ancient civilizations. According to Chinesetradition, the Chinese people originated in the Huang He (Hwang Ho or YellowRiver) valley. The legends tell of a creator, P'an Ku, who was succeeded by aseries of heavenly, terrestrial, and human sovereigns. Rice was grown in easternChina circa 5500 BC, and about five centuries later an agricultural societydeveloped in the Huang He valley.The Emperor's legacyChinese civilization owes much to the legendary ruler. Agriculture and husbandrysimultaneously developed in the ancient times when Huang-ti ruled. Silkwormraising was accomplished earliest in China. Yue Jue Shu says Emperor Huang-tistarted the silk clothing industry and cultivated mulberry (for silkworms) andhemp; as the Chinese archaeologists state "it is from historical records"(Selections of Chinese Relics and Archaeology, Foreign Languages Press, Beijing,1995). We should be grateful that at least some historical records reach to usfrom the mists of time. Ancient scribes took care to leave us an incredible taleof a very strange being, the one they called the "Yellow Emperor." And it was inHuang-ti's age that the most ancient Chinese writing was "invented."
Like other ancient peoples, the Chinese developed unique attributes. Their form ofwriting, developed by 2000 BC, was a complex system of picture writing using formscalled ideograms, pictograms, and phonograms. Such early forms of Chinese becameknown through the discovery by archaeologists of oracle bones, which were boneswith writings inscribed on them. They were used for fortune-telling and recordkeeping in ancient China. In 1899 a small group of Chinese scholars andantiquarians collected quantities of inscribed bones from the fields around HsiaoT'un. Five years passed before enough symbols could be deciphered to reveal thetrue nature of the "dragon bones."They were a record of a people who called themselves Shang, and ruled landssurrounding Anyang some four thousand years ago. The objects embedded in thefields of Hsiao T'un came not from dragons but from tortoises and cattle. Shangkings desired to glimpse into the future, and their diviners inscribed the royalinquiries on a carefully scraped and polished tortoise shell or ox blade or legbone.Years later the People's Republic of China archaeologists uncovered thousands moreShang oracle bones. Corps of learned people created a whole new branch oflinguistic study, Jia gu shu, the study of shell and bone writing. As scholarspored over the writings of ancient diviners, they reached a provocativeconclusion: Shang writing was not the oldest Chinese writing, not by a thousandyears at least. The characters used then were already so sophisticated that theyundoubtedly had many centuries of development behind them. Very little is knownpre-Shang writing. The Shang Dynasty (1766-1122 BC) is the first documented era ofancient China. The highly developed hierarchy consisted of a king, nobles,commoners, and slaves. The capital city was Anyang, in north Henan Province. Somescholars have suggested that travelers from Mesopotamia and from Southeast Asiabrought agricultural methods to China, which stimulated the growth of ancientChinese civilization. If so, there may be a direct connection with Sumer. TheShang peoples were known for their use of jade, bronze, horse-drawn chariots,ancestor worship, and highly organized armies. A significant aspect of China isits long cultural and national history. The Chinese people have shared a commonculture longer than any other group on Earth. The Chinese writing system datesback almost 4,000 years.Ancient libraries.The earliest known libraries were connected with palaces and temples. In China,records of the Shang dynasty were written on animal bones and tortoise shells. Anearly library called "The Healing Place of the Soul"; in the palace of Egypt'sKing Ramses II (1304?-1237 BC) at Thebes, consisted of thousands of papyrusscrolls. Among the most important libraries in the ancient Near East was thepalace library of Ashurbanipal (668?-627? BC) at Nineveh in Assyria. This earlytype of national library, collected "for the sake of distant days" consisted ofover 30,000 clay tablets. Early librarians were usually priests, teachers, orscholars. The first known Chinese librarian was the philosopher Lao Tse, who wasappointed keeper of the royal historical records for the Chou rulers about 550 BC.There is a definite connection between Lao Tse and the Yellow Emperor.Many cultures identify a sacred being as the creator of writing. In Egypt, thehonor was shared by Thoth and Isis, while the ancient Greeks thanked Hermes fortheir writing words.The Yellow Emperor was a highly gifted "Son of Heaven". Legend goes that he wasthe inventor of many things such as making clothes, manufacturing boats andvehicles, building houses and palaces, etc. He also had his court officials LunLing make musical instruments, Da Nao compile the Heavenly Stems and the EarthlyBranches (The 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches are used in combination todesignate years, months, days and hours), and Ts'ang Chieh invent the Chinesecharacters. Thus, the Chinese tradition attributes the invention of writing toTs'ang Chieh, a minister of the heroic "Yellow Emperor," Huang-ti.
When men first learned to write, "all spirits cried in agony, as the innermostsecrets of nature were thus revealed."Chinese mathematicsThe origin of Chinese math is surrounded by a great amount of myth since many ofthe ancient mathematical writings were lost through the decay of the bamboomaterial they used to write on. It is believed that the Emperor Huang-ti was thefirst patron of mathematics. Under Huang-ti's rule, his ministers, Tai-mao and Li-shou devised a sexigesimal based number system and corresponding arithmetic.The Chinese believed that numbers had philosophical and metaphysical properties.The Chinese used numbers "to achieve spiritual harmony with the cosmos." Theybelieved Man's "...existence depended upon numerically specified actions andobligations."Early Chinese math was presented in a literary form. There was no use of algebraicnotation. The digits in their base 10 systems were ciphered and they were writtenvertically on bark, bamboo, silk, and paper. The traditional Chinese numeralsystem was a multiplicative grouping system, although a later system, calledscientific Chinese numerals was a positional system.In love...The oldest books on love are the Chinese "Handbooks of Sex" written 5,000 yearsago by the legendary Yellow Emperor, Huang-ti (2697-2598 BC)....and warThe knowledge of the four useful branches of military knowledge concerned with (1)mountains, (2) rivers, (3) marshes, and (4) plains; and enabled the Yellow Emperorto vanquish four several sovereigns (Napoleon had similar beliefs about the art ofwar). Ancient Chinese writings confirm that the Yellow Emperor was responsible forthe invention of warfare.In the LIU T`AO it is mentioned that Huang-ti "fought seventy battles and pacifiedthe Empire." Ts`ao Kung's explanation is, that the Yellow Emperor was the first toinstitute the feudal system of vassals princes, each of whom (to the number offour) originally bore the title of Emperor. Li Ch`uan tells us that the art of waroriginated under Huang-ti, who received it from his Minister Feng. Huang-ti, orthe Yellow Emperor, is referred to as the "Originator of the Chinese Culture", andall people of the Chinese race regard themselves as descendants of Yan Di andHuan-ti.With the original surname of Gongsun (later changed to Ji) and another nameYouxiong Shi, Huang-ti was also known as Xuanyuan Shi as he lived at the XuanyuanHill. A clan leader towards the end of China's primitive society, Huang-ti Di wasthe full brother of Yan Di with whom he shared the country. He formed an alliancewith Yan Di in later years against the invasion of Chiyou, the chieftain of theJiuli Tribe. A decisive battle was fought at Zhuolu in the northwest of thepresent Hebei Province. Legend goes that at the beginning of the battle, Chiyousneezed out a thick fog all over the place which lasted three days, and thesoldiers of Huang-tii could not tell their directions. Fortunately Huang-ti ledhis men out of the fog by the "compass chariot" he had invented and won completevictory.The alliance of Huang-ti and Yan Di split after Chiyou was defeated because, itwas said, Yan Di intended to infringe upon the various tribes and seize theleading position of the alliance while the chieftains of the tribes preferred toobey Huang-ti. As a result the two leaders fought at Banquan. After three fiercebattles, Huang-ti won victory and was made the "Son of Heaven" by the tribechieftains.Strict and impartial, Huang Di was able to get rid of the evil for the people. Itwas said that Gu, son of the God of Mount Zhongshan named Zhulong, murderedanother god at Mount Kunlun in collaboration with a deity called Qinpi. The Yellow

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