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2. jurnal tanah organik

2. jurnal tanah organik

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Published by: thosibasp24 on Oct 12, 2012
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06/29/2014

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Soil Organic Matter 
 
Decomposition of Residues
 
Rate of decomposition
 
Very briefly, what is meant by the carboncycle (or any other nutrient cycle) is simplythe cycling between organic and inorganicforms.
 
sugars, starches, proteins >
 
hemicelluloses >
 
cellulose >
 
fats, waxes >
 
lignins
 
Soils and the Greenhouse Effect
 
Increasing concentration of certain gases inthe atmosphere may cause a net gain insolar radiation, leading to increasedaverage temperatures, alteration in weather patterns and rise in sea level. Although theburning of fossil fuels is the leading con-tribution in increasing concentration of CO
2
 in the atmosphere, deforestation, drainageand tillage has caused and still is causingan increase the rate of soil organic matter decomposition and resultant atmosphericinput of CO
2
. In addition to CO
2
, other greenhouse gases are released from soil.These include CO
2
, CH
4
and N
2
O producedby soil microorganisms.
 
Decomposition proceeds with the liberationof CO
2
+ H
2
O; release of N, P and S ininorganic forms (
mineralization
) or synthesisinto organic combinations (
immobilization
);and the formation of new compounds thatare resistant to decomposition.
 
 Another aspect of residue composition thataffects the rate of decomposition is the
 
C / N ratio. Since the organisms thatdecompose residues need N (and other essential elements) as well as C, if there islittle N in the residue, decomposition is slow.
 
The origin of soil organic matter is plantmaterial. The rate of decomposition of plantresidues depends on their composition andsoil environmental conditions.
 
Composition of Plant Residues andEffect on Decomposition Rate
 
Dry Matter Composition
 
Carbohydrates
 
Cellulose 45 %
 
Hemicelluloses 20 %
 
Sugars and starches 5 %
 
Effect of C / N ratio on rate of decomposition of residues.
 
 Also, if there is little N in the residue,microorganisms will utilized inorganic N inthe soil to satisfy their N requirement,thereby competing with plants for N andreducing the amount of soil N available for plant growth.
 
Lignins
20 %
 
Proteins
8 %
 
Fats and waxes
2 %
 
 
The C / N ratio in soil is relatively constantand = 12. In plant residues, it is highlyvariable and increases with maturity. TheC / N is lower in microorganisms and = 8.Since microbes incorporate only about 1/3of the C metabolized into biomass, thesubstrate material must have C / N = 24 tosatisfy the N requirement of microbes. If theC / N ration of residue > 24, available soil Nis consumed by microbes and plant-available N decreases.
 
Humus
 
Soil organic matter is a broad term thatincludes biomass, partially decomposedresidue and highly decomposed andtransformed colloidal residue. The latter iscalled humus. It develops due to (microbial)synthesis as well as decompositionreactions. Humus includes:
 
Humic substances
 
Complex polymers that are resistant todecomposition (60 - 80 %)
 
Identifiable biomolecules
 
Less resistant to decomposition (20 - 30 %)
 
Humus substances include fulvic acids,humic acids and humin. These can be ex-tracted from soil and differentiated based ontheir solubilities in acid or base.
 
Substance MW Decomposition
 
 ___________________________________ 
 
Fulvic acid lowest labile
 
Humic acid higher more resistant
 
Humin highest most resistant
 
One reason humic substances are onlyslowly decomposed is that these are ad-sorbed by soil mineral colloids.
 
Effect of the C / N of incorporated
 
residue on available N in the soil.
 
Soil Environmental Conditions AffectingResidue Decomposition
 
Colloidal properties of humus include:
 
Surface area / unit mass > silicate clays
 
High CEC (pH-dependent)
 
High water holding capacity
 
 Aeration
 
Decomposition under aerobic conditions isfaster than under anaerobic conditions. Theend products of anaerobic decompositionare incompletely oxidized.
 
Temperature
 
 Activity is greatest at intermediate temper-atures.
 
 
Influences of Organic Matter on PlantGrowth
 
Many beneficial influences on plant growthare indirect. These include:
 
Greater water holding capacity
 
Supply of nutrients
 
Better soil aeration
 
Stimulation of beneficial microbial activities
 
Reduced metal toxicities
 
Typical distribution of organic C with depth for different soil orders.
 
Factors Affecting the Amount of OrganicMatter in Soil
 
Direct influences include
:
Uptake of growth-promoting compoundssuch as vitamins and auxins
 
 Allelopathic effects
 
Climate (temperature and rainfall; greatestaccumulation where cool and wet)
 
Natural vegetation (grasslands > forests)
 
Texture and drainage (clay > sand; poorlydrained > well drained)
 
Cropping and tillage (virgin land > croppedland; no-till > conventional-till)
 
Crop rotations and additions of nutrients
Influences of Organic Matter on SoilChemical and Physical Properties
 
CEC is increased
 
Dark color 
 
Increased aggregate formation and stability
 
Water content at any matric potential isincreased
 
Influences of Soil Organic Matter onWater Quality
 
Greater infiltration results in reduced stormflow, soil erosion and surface transport of contaminants.
 
Greater sorption reduces contaminantmobility in soil.
 
Higher soil fertility reduces fertilizer inputs.
 
Amount of Organic Matter is Soils
 
Long-term effect of tillage, crop rotations and
 
fertilizer application on soil organic matter.
 
Organic soils 20 - 30 %
 
Mineral soils < 20 %
 
Decomposition Rates of Different Poolsof Organic Matter 
 
Fresh residues decompose faster than soilorganic matter. The rate of degradation of different fractions of soil organic matter varies from a half-life of only a few monthsfor non-humic substances to centuries for the most resistant humic substances.
 

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