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PHSX821_HW2

# PHSX821_HW2

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Classical Mechanics. Goldstein. Chapter 2. #s 1, 3, 6, 13, 14, 20, 22
Classical Mechanics. Goldstein. Chapter 2. #s 1, 3, 6, 13, 14, 20, 22

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04/02/2014

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chapter
2
Example
4.
The
Brachistochrone
problem:
curve
offast
descent.
(
Prot.I
.
Find
a
curve
joining
twopoints,
along
which
a
particlefalling
from
rest
under
t
influence
of
gravity
travels
from
higher
to
the
lower
point
in
the
least
time.
5
r)
he
,,,:l+:iffi*
1o
t*u':mgA
+
u:1ffi
=+
f
:
-#:,\ffi\*lffil
--+-
*H:#lffil
-
j:ffi*",+
I\E,da:r*cz
Let
c1y
:
sin2g
I
\8,
oo
:
I
I
sin'
0d,0
:
*
I
u-
cos20)d0
:
+(2e
-sin2e)
:
tr
*
c2
Thesolution
parameterizedby
6:20
is
|.:
a(6-
sin|)-c2
|,:
o,(r
-cos
/)
where
o:*.
If.
y
:
0
at
r
:0,
c2:
0. This
is
a
cycloid
passing
throughtheorigin.
For
the
case
that
To:
mu3/2,
u:
yEgg
yigQ
:
1/Tgz,
z'
:
A,where
z:
A
*
C
and
tfi n;p
':
|
',1
2s,
which
will
yieidthe
same
solution
as
the
above.

pr,rve*
,
?..b
a.3
rl'-shorl"
,
I
d|
s*a.ncg-
0n
L
Pt^.".x-
ia
a"
t
ds
t
t
\$'
4
,^^.t;ot
oL
I
=
J
o1
s
t"twee^
*-o
sl,-r*13
l^t-
-t;*a
Po;"-fl
t
2
1
t
*
(y)'
d,x
J
d
,7,Si"gL
-L
)
solve
dr
6x
r--17
=o
)*(\$;=
o
0''/'
Q'
=-#
J
r-c
'
=)
=C
'lr
C
ows
(
U
Y,
=)
/
=
a'x
*
b
(*
.T^t*^rf
a.
!-;^"^n-
-*,oo
?oi,*<
I
6
ho.test
lr
CxV
V?
.
L2eTuu€e^
\-
is
tha
oyr
4-
f
*na

?.ub
2'6
BrachistochroneInside
the Earth
A brilliant
physics
student
thinks
that
ourtransportation
problemscanbe
solved
by
digging
a
network
of
tunnels
through theEarth
connecting
different
cities
(New
York
and
LA,
say). The
ideais
to
use
thegravitational
attraction
supplied
by
theEarth
to
accelerate
a
person
from
one
point
to
another. Let's
idealize
this
and
neglect
air
resistance
and
any
friction
which the
person
may
encounterwhen
in
contact
with
the
tunnel,
and
we'Il
assume
that
the
Earth
has
a
uniform density
(and
more
importantly,
we'll
neglect
the
costof digging
the
tunnel).
Theproblem
is
to
findthe
shape
of
the tunnelwhich
will
minimizethe
transit
time
between
the
cities.
You should
find
that
the
shapeis
that
of a
hypocgcloi,d,
whtch
is
the
curve described
by
a
point
on
a
circle
rolling
insidea
circle of
a
larger
After
findingthe
shape,
findthetime
required
to
go
from NY
to
LA
28
minutes).If
youwant
to
solve
this
problem,youmay
want
to first
review
Sec.5.2
ofMari,on
and
Thornton-yot'll
need
to
know the
form
of
the
gravitational
potential
energyinside
the
Earth.
Soluti,on.
First,
find
thegravitationalfield
g
using
t
d"o:
-hrG
I
o&\d3r.
fr9''Jv''
/
Since
the
mass
density is
assumed
to
be
uniform,
we
have
where
M
is
the
mass
and
R
is
the
the
Earth.
The
gravitational
force
is
F
:
-g,
with
m
the
mass
of the
particle
moving
in
thetunnel;
we
need
to
integrate
this
once
to
obtain thepotential
energy
t/(r),
with
the
result
CI!?r2_lCMmr.--ft2R3' 2 R
'
GMm
-r')R
wherewe've
chosen
thepotential
energy
to
bezero
at
r
:
oo.
The
total
energy
of theparticle
is
s:!*o'+U(r).
(4)
2
Assuming
that
o:
0
at
r
:
R
andsolving
for
t,,
we
find
where
g
:
GMIR2
:9.8
m/s2,andds
isan
element
of
arclength.
Solving
integrating,
we
have
for
the
time
of
descent
(5)
for
df
and(1)
(2)
(3)
(")
:
{
(
-%-r",
r--R
o-
J
bl
|
-#",
r>
R
ds
"-,1,t-
(6)
g(R2
-
rr)
R
r=, f2
ds
t:lHlsJ,ffi