For the purpose of this paper, the term“ship” is used to denote a vehicle em-ployed to transport goods and personsfrom one point to another over water.Ship propulsion normally occurs withthehelpofapropeller,whichisthetermmostwidelyusedinEnglish,although the word “screw” is some-times seen, inter alia in combinationssuchasa“twin-screw”propulsionplant.Today, the primary source of propellerpoweristhedieselengine,andthepowerrequirementandrateofrevolutionverymuch depend on the ship’s hull formand the propeller design. Therefore, inorder to arrive at a solution that is asoptimal as possible, some generalknowledge is essential as to the princi-pal ship and diesel engine parametersthat influence the propulsion system.This paper will, in particular, attempt toexplain some of the most elementaryterms used regarding ship types,ship’s dimensions and hull forms andclarify some of the parameters pertain-ing to hull resistance, propeller condi-tions and the diesel engine’s loaddiagram.On the other hand, it is considered be-yond the scope of this publication togive an explanation of how propulsioncalculations as such are carried out, asthe calculation procedure is extremelycomplex. The reader is referred to thespecialised literature on this subject, forexample as stated in “References”.
Scope of this Paper
Thispaperisdividedintothreechapterswhich,inprinciple,maybeconsideredasthreeseparatepapersbutwhichalso,withadvantage,maybereadincloseconnectiontoeachother.Therefore,someimportantinformationmentionedinonechaptermaywellappearinanotherchapter,too.Chapter 1, describes the most elemen-tary terms used to define ship sizesand hull forms such as, for example,the ship’s displacement, deadweight,design draught, length between per-pendiculars, block coefficient, etc.Other ship terms described include theeffective towing resistance, consistingof frictional, residual and air resistance,and the influence of these resistancesin service.Chapter 2, deals with ship propulsionand the flow conditions around the pro-peller(s). In this connection, the wakefraction coefficient and thrust deduc-tion coefficient, etc. are mentioned.The total power needed for the propel-leris found based on the above effec-tive towing resistance and variouspropeller and hull dependent efficien-cies which are also described. A sum-mary of the propulsion theory is shownin Fig. 6.The operating conditions of a propelleraccording to the propeller law valid forapropellerwithfixedpitcharedescribedforfreesailingincalmweather,andfollowed up by the relative heavy/lightrunning conditions which apply whentheshipissailingandsubjecttodifferenttypes of extra resistance, like fouling,heavy sea against, etc.Chapter 3, elucidates the importanceof choosing the correct specified MCRandoptimisingpointofthemainengine,and thereby the engine’s load diagraminconsiderationtothepropeller’sdesignpoint.Theconstructionoftherelevantload diagram lines is described in detailby means of several examples. Fig. 24shows, for a ship with fixed pitch pro-peller, by means of a load diagram, theimportant influence of different types ofship resistance on the engine’s contin-uous service rating.3
Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion