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Theta-Beta Compressible Flow

Theta-Beta Compressible Flow

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Published by Gohar Khokhar

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Published by: Gohar Khokhar on Oct 12, 2012
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05/13/2014

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Fluids – Lecture 17 Notes
1. Oblique WavesReading: Anderson 9.1, 9.2
Oblique Waves
Mach waves
Small disturbances created by a slender body in a supersonic flow will propagate diagonallyaway as
Mach waves 
. These consist of small isentropic variations in
ρ
,
,
 p
, and
h
, and arelooselyanalogous to the water waves sentout bya speedboat.Machwaves appear stationarywithrespect to the object generatingthem, butwhen viewedrelative to the stillair, theyarein fact indistinguishable from sound waves, and their normal-direction speed of propagationis equal to
a
, the speed of sound.
V > aa
supersonic flow still airbody moving atsupersonic speedfixed bodyfixedobserver
m  v  i  n   g   M   c  h   w  v  e   (   s  u  n  d   )  
equivalent
s  t  t  i  n  r   y   M   c  h   w  v  e   
The angle
µ
of a Mach wave relative to the flow direction is called the
Mach angle 
. It canbe determined by considering the wave to be the superposition of many pulses emitted bythe body, each one producing a disturbance circle (in 2-D) or sphere (in 3-D) which expandsat the speed of sound
a
.At some time interval
t
after the pulse is emitted, the radius of thecircle will be
at
, while the body will travel a distance
Vt
. The Mach angle is then seen to be
at
1
µ
= arcsin = arcsin
Vt
which can be defined atany point in the flow.In the subsonic flow case where
=
V/a <
1the expanding circles do not coalesce into a wave front, and the Mach angle is not defined.
at Vt 
µ
V/a >
11
V/a <at Vt 
1
 
Oblique shock and expansion waves
Mach waves can be either compression waves (
 p
2
>p
1
) or expansion waves (
 p
2
<p
1
), butin either case their strength is by definition very small (
|
 p
2
−
 p
1
|≪
 p
1
). A body of finitethickness, however, will generate oblique waves of finite strength, and now we must distinguish between compression and expansion types. The simplest body shape for generatingsuch waves is– a concave corner, which generates an
oblique shock 
(compression), or– a convex corner, which generates an
expansion fan 
.The flow quantity changes across an oblique shock are in the same direction as across a
  o   b   l   i  q   u  e   s   h  o  c   k  
θ
1
h
11
ρ
 p p
222
ρ
h
>>>
1
h
11
ρ
 p
12 1
 M  M
<θ
1
h
11
ρ
 p p
222
ρ
h
1
h
11
ρ
 p
12 1
 M  M
 e x p a n s  i o n  f a n 
><<<
1
 p
o
 p
o
1
 p
o
<
21
 p
o
 p
o
1
 p
o
2
=
normalshock, andacross an expansion fan theyare in the opposite direction.One importantdifference is that
 p
o
decreases across the shock, while the fan is isentropic, so that it has noloss oftotal pressure, and hence
 p
o
2
=
 p
o
1
.
Oblique geometry and analysis
As withthe normalshockcase, a controlvolume analysis is appliedto the oblique shock flow,using the control volume shown in the figure. The top and bottom boundaries are chosento lie along streamlines so that only the boundaries parallel to the shock, with area
A
, havemass flow across them. Velocity components are taken in the
x
-
coordinates normal andtangential to the shock, as shown. The tangential
axis is tilted from the upstream flowdirection by the
wave angle 
β 
, which is the same as the Mach angle
µ
only if the shock isextremely weak.For a finite-strengthshock,
β>µ
.The upstream flow velocitycomponentsare
u
1
=
1
sin
βw
1
=
1
cos
β 
 zi
θ
n
1
2
β
 x
1
u
1
w
2
w
2
u Ann
β
 An
β−θ
~
n
1
1
 M 
βµθθ 1
n
1
1
 M ~
All the integral conservation equations are now applied to the control volume.2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mass continuity

ρ ndA
=0
·
ˆ
ρ
1
u
1
A
+
ρ
2
u
2
A
=0
ρ
1
u
1
=
ρ
2
u
2
(1)
x
-Momentum

ρ nudA
+

 p
ˆ
·
ˆ
n
·
ˆ
ıdA
=0
22
ρ
1
u
1
A
+
ρ
2
u
2
A
−
 p
1
A
+
 p
2
A
=0
22
ρ
1
u
1
+
 p
1
=
ρ
2
u
2
+
 p
2
(2)
-Momentum

ρ nwdA
+

 p
ˆˆ
·
ˆ
n
·
kdA
=0
ρ
1
u
1
Aw
1
+
ρ
2
u
2
Aw
2
=0
w
1
=
w
2
(3)Energy
·
ˆ

ρ nh
o
dA
=0
ρ
1
u
1
h
o
1
A
+
ρ
2
u
2
h
o
2
A
=0
h
o
1
=
h
o
2
1
2 2
1
2
h
1
+
u
1
+
w
=
h
2
+
u
2
+
w
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
h
1
+
u
1
=
h
2
+ (4)
u
2
22
 p
Equation of State
γ 
−
1
2
=
ρ
2
h
2
(5)
γ 
Simplification of equation (3) makes use of (1) to eliminate
ρuA
from both sides. Simplification of equation (4) makes use of (1) to eliminate
ρuA
and then (3) to eliminate
w
fromboth sides.
Oblique/normal shock equivalence
It is apparent that equations (1), (2), (4), (5) are in fact identical to the normal-shockequations derived earlier. The one addition
-momentum equation (3) simply states thatthe tangential velocity component doesn’t change across a shock. This can be physicallyinterpreted if we examine the oblique shock from the viewpoint of an observer moving withthe everywhere-constant tangential velocity
w
=
w
1
=
w
2
. As shown in the figure, themoving observer sees a normal shock with velocities
u
1
, and
u
2
. The static fluid properties
 p
,
ρ
,
h
,
a
are of course the same in both frames.
Oblique shock relations
The effective equivalence between an oblique anda normalshockallows re-use ofthe alreadyderivednormalshock jumprelations.We onlyneed to construct the necessary transformationfrom one frame to the other.First we define the
normal Mach number components 
seen by the moving observer.
u
1
1
sin
β a
n
1
≡
==
1
sin
β 
(6)
1
a
1
u
2
2
sin(
β 
−
θ
)
n
2
≡
==
2
sin(
β 
−
θ
)
a
2
a
2
3

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