denition of ‘co-regency’ (Shaw and Nicholson 2003, 72), the older king appoints and chooses
his son as a co-ruler and heir. For some time they rule together with the purpose of teachingthe younger and of averting any unrest during the transfer of power after the death of the oldking. In the case of Thutmose III and Hatshepsut, however, he already was a legal king whenshe decided to join him. As it was just at the beginning of Thutmose’s rule, there was no need toworry about his heir. Moreover, he was much younger than Hatshepsut, so he was junior and she
senior. And nally, it was Hatshepsut’s decision to opt for a joint rule, not his. Hatshepsut andThutmose III were ruling together but not according to the dictionary denition of co-regency
(Callender 2002, 32–33).
Thus, the background of our discussion is the rst part of the reign of Thutmose III, whichcovers the time of Hatshepsut’s regency and formal kingship (Bryan 2000, 218–245). The personof Hatshepsut is well known since Jean-François Champollion restored her to life in 1828, whenhe read her names on the walls of the temple of Deir el-Bahari. He was the rst to becomeaware of her female titles set against kingly cartouches (Keller 2005b).Hatshepsut ruled over the Two Lands from 1479 BC until 1458 BC. During the rst sevenyears she was a regent to the young Thutmose III (Dorman 2005a; 2006, 41–49). For the nextfteen years Hatshepsut was his co-ruler (Keller 2005a; Dorman 2006, 49–58). After her death,
Thutmose III ruled alone for another thirty-three years.
Hatshepsut descended from the royal family (Roth 2005a). She was a daughter of Thutmose I,the third king of 18th dynasty, and Queen ‘Ahmose. Thutmose I was included in the royal
line by his marriage to ‘Ahmose. ‘Ahmose was a sister of Amenhotep I and a daughter of the
great ‘Ahmose, the conqueror of Hyksos, and ‘Ahmose-Nefertari (Dodson and Hilton 2004,
122–133). Among the ‘Ahmosid family there were many powerful and important women of
whom Hatshepsut was the successor (Tyldesley 2006, 79–93).
Hatshepsut married her half-brother, Thutmose II and for about three years she played therole of the King’s Great Wife. After the death of her husband, Hatshepsut became a regent toher stepson, Thutmose III. He was a son of Thutmose II and his secondary wife Isis. During
their marriage, Hatshepsut gave birth to only one daughter, Neferure‘.In this early period “Hatshepsut ruled Egypt in all but name” (Murnane 1977, 33); she did
not use “titles more exalted than those customarily assigned to a royal consort of the purest
(Murnane 1977, 32). It seems that at rst Hatshepsut wanted to avoid any unrest
during the rule of the child-king. It is unclear for how many years this state of regency lasted.
For unknown reasons the role of the regent, based principally on her authority as the God’s
Wife, became insufcient for Hatshepsut. The date of her coronation is disputed. Moreover,
it seems, as already stated by Murnane (1977, 32), that the process during which Hatshepsut became king was gradual.It is undisputed that Hatshepsut was crowned between year 2 and year 7 (Tefnin 1973), whenthe execution of Senenmut’s tomb TT 71 was started. This is the
terminus post quem
for thedate of her coronation: the debris from TT 71 covered the tomb of Senenmut’s parents (Dorman
2005b) in which vessels with sealings bearing Hatshepsut’s kingly titles were deposited (Hayes1957, 78–80;Dorman2006,48–49).Dorman(2006,53)statesthattheexactdateofcoronation –80;Dorman2006,48–49).Dorman(2006,53)statesthattheexactdateofcoronation80; Dorman 2006, 48–49).Dorman(2006,53)statesthattheexactdateofcoronation –49).Dorman(2006,53)statesthattheexactdateofcoronation49). Dorman (2006, 53) states that the exact date of coronation
is not important in the case of Hatshepsut. He described this event as the moment “on whichher
iconography caught up with her
Hatshepsut based her rights to the throne on the fact that she was the eldest living descendantof Thutmose I. Later she claimed to have shared a co-regency with her father but in the lightof the evidence this is highly doubtful. She omitted the fact of the reign of her husband and did