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Chapter 7 Sequences and Series (SAT course)

Chapter 7 Sequences and Series (SAT course)

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Published by BernardRussell
Sequences and Series (SAT course)
Sequences and Series (SAT course)

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Published by: BernardRussell on Oct 13, 2012
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CHAPTER 7 SEQUENCES AND SERIES
SEQUENCE
A sequence is a function where the domain is a set of consecutivepositive integers beginning with 1.FINITE SEQUENCE
A finite sequence is a function having for its domain a set of positive integers
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
,
n
}
for some positive integer
n
.INFINITE SEQUENCE
An infinite sequence is a function having for its domain theset of positive integers, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
,
n
,
}.The function values are considered the terms of the sequence.The first term of the sequence is denoted with a subscript of 1, for example,
1
a
, and thegeneral term has a subscript of 
n
, for example,
.
n
a
 Example
Find the first four terms,
10
a
and
15
a
from the given
n
th term of thesequence,
2
1, 3.
n
a n n
 Finding the General Term
When only the first few terms of a sequence are known,we can often make a prediction of what the general term is by looking for a pattern.Example
Predict the general term of the sequence
1, 2,
4, 8,
16,
.Solution
These are powers of two with alternating signs, so the general term might be
()

.Sums and SeriesSeries: Given the infinite sequence
1234
,,,,,,
n
a a a a a
, the sum of the terms
123
n
a a a a
    
is called an infinite series. A partial sum is the sum of thefirst
n
terms
123
.
n
a a a a
   
A partial sum is also called a finite series or
n
thpartial sum, and is denoted
.
n
 Sigma Notation: The Greek letter
(sigma) can be used to denote a sum when thegeneral term of a sequence is a formula.Example: The sum of the first four terms of the sequence 3, 5, 7, 9, . . .,
21
, . . .can be named
41
21.
 
 
Recursive Definitions: A sequence may be defined recursively or by using arecursion formula. Such a definition lists the first term, or the first few terms, andthen describes how to determine the remaining terms from the given terms.Example: Find the first 5 terms of the sequence defined by
11
5, 23, for 1.
n n
a a a n
 
ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES AND SERIES
Arithmetic Sequences: A sequence is arithmetic if there exists a number
, called thecommon difference, such that
1
n n
a a
for any integer
1.
n
 
Definition
 
A sequence with general term 
a
n+
1
= a
n
+ d 
 is called an
arithmetic sequence.
 a
 n
= nth term and d = common difference
 n
th
Term of an Arithmetic Sequence: The
n
th term of an arithmetic sequence isgiven by
1
1,
n
a a n
for any integer
1.
n
 Example: Find the 14
th
term of the arithmetic sequence 4, 7, 10, 13, . . .Example: Which term is 301 from the sequence above?Sum of the First
n
Terms of an Arithmetic SequenceConsider the arithmetic sequence 3, 5, 7, 9, . . . When we add the first four terms of the sequence, we get
4
, which is 3 + 5 + 7 + 9, or 24. This sum is called anarithmetic series. To find a formula for the sum of the first
n
terms,
n
, of anarithmetic sequence, we first denote an arithmetic sequence, as follows:
111This term is 2 terms This is the nextback from the lastto last term.
,,2,,2,,.
n n n
a a d a d a d a d a
111
22.
n n n n
S a a d a d a d a d a
   
reversing the order gives us
111
22.
n n n n
S a a d a d a d a d a
   
adding these two sums we have,
 
111111
22222.
n n n nn n n
S a a a d a d a d a a d a d a d a d a a
 Notice that all of the brackets simplify to
1
n
a a
and that
1
n
a a
is added
n
times.This gives us
11
2 or2
n n n n
nS n a a S a a
 So the sum of the first
n
terms of an arithmetic sequence is given by
1
2
n n
nS a a
 
GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES AND SERIES
GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE: A sequence is geometric if there is a number
r,
calledthe common ratio, such that
11
, or , for any integer 1.
nn nn
ar a a r na
 
Definition
 
A sequence with general term
a
n
+1
=
a
n
 is called an
geometric sequence.
 a
 n
= nth term and r = common ratio
 
n
th
TERM OF A GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE: The
n
th term of a geometric is givenby
11
, for any int
nn
a a r n
 SUM OF THE FIRST
n
TERMS: The sum of the first
n
terms of a geometricsequence is given by
1
1, for any 1.1
nn
a S
 

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