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Sequences and Series (SAT course)

Sequences and Series (SAT course)

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CHAPTER 7 SEQUENCES AND SERIES

SEQUENCE

：

A sequence is a function where the domain is a set of consecutivepositive integers beginning with 1.FINITE SEQUENCE

：

A finite sequence is a function having for its domain a set of positive integers

，

{1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

…

,

n

}

，

for some positive integer

n

.INFINITE SEQUENCE

：

An infinite sequence is a function having for its domain theset of positive integers, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

…

,

n

,

…

}.The function values are considered the terms of the sequence.The first term of the sequence is denoted with a subscript of 1, for example,

1

a

, and thegeneral term has a subscript of

n

, for example,

.

n

a

Example

：

Find the first four terms,

10

a

and

15

a

from the given

n

th term of thesequence,

2

1, 3.

n

a n n

Finding the General Term

：

When only the first few terms of a sequence are known,we can often make a prediction of what the general term is by looking for a pattern.Example

：

Predict the general term of the sequence

1, 2,

4, 8,

16,

…

.Solution

：

These are powers of two with alternating signs, so the general term might be

()

.Sums and SeriesSeries: Given the infinite sequence

1234

,,,,,,

n

a a a a a

, the sum of the terms

123

n

a a a a

is called an infinite series. A partial sum is the sum of thefirst

n

terms

123

.

n

a a a a

A partial sum is also called a finite series or

n

thpartial sum, and is denoted

.

n

S

Sigma Notation: The Greek letter

(sigma) can be used to denote a sum when thegeneral term of a sequence is a formula.Example: The sum of the first four terms of the sequence 3, 5, 7, 9, . . .,

21

k

, . . .can be named

41

21.

k

Recursive Definitions: A sequence may be defined recursively or by using arecursion formula. Such a definition lists the first term, or the first few terms, andthen describes how to determine the remaining terms from the given terms.Example: Find the first 5 terms of the sequence defined by

11

5, 23, for 1.

n n

a a a n

ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES AND SERIES

Arithmetic Sequences: A sequence is arithmetic if there exists a number

d

, called thecommon difference, such that

1

n n

a a d

for any integer

1.

n

Definition

A sequence with general term

a

n+

1

= a

n

+ d

is called an

arithmetic sequence.

a

n

= nth term and d = common difference

n

th

Term of an Arithmetic Sequence: The

n

th term of an arithmetic sequence isgiven by

1

1,

n

a a n d

for any integer

1.

n

Example: Find the 14

th

term of the arithmetic sequence 4, 7, 10, 13, . . .Example: Which term is 301 from the sequence above?Sum of the First

n

Terms of an Arithmetic SequenceConsider the arithmetic sequence 3, 5, 7, 9, . . . When we add the first four terms of the sequence, we get

4

S

, which is 3 + 5 + 7 + 9, or 24. This sum is called anarithmetic series. To find a formula for the sum of the first

n

terms,

n

S

, of anarithmetic sequence, we first denote an arithmetic sequence, as follows:

111This term is 2 terms This is the nextback from the lastto last term.

,,2,,2,,.

n n n

a a d a d a d a d a

111

22.

n n n n

S a a d a d a d a d a

reversing the order gives us

111

22.

n n n n

S a a d a d a d a d a

adding these two sums we have,

111111

22222.

n n n nn n n

S a a a d a d a d a d a d a d a d a d a a

Notice that all of the brackets simplify to

1

n

a a

and that

1

n

a a

is added

n

times.This gives us

11

2 or2

n n n n

nS n a a S a a

So the sum of the first

n

terms of an arithmetic sequence is given by

1

2

n n

nS a a

GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES AND SERIES

GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE: A sequence is geometric if there is a number

r,

calledthe common ratio, such that

11

, or , for any integer 1.

nn nn

ar a a r na

Definition

A sequence with general term

a

n

+1

=

a

n

r

is called an

geometric sequence.

a

n

= nth term and r = common ratio

n

th

TERM OF A GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE: The

n

th term of a geometric is givenby

11

, for any int

nn

a a r n

SUM OF THE FIRST

n

TERMS: The sum of the first

n

terms of a geometricsequence is given by

1

1, for any 1.1

nn

a r S r r

## Activity (1)