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Common Boneset: Eupatorium perfoliatum L. - Plant Fact Sheet - Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, MD

Common Boneset: Eupatorium perfoliatum L. - Plant Fact Sheet - Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, MD

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Common Boneset: Eupatorium perfoliatum L. - Plant Fact Sheet - Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, MD
Common Boneset: Eupatorium perfoliatum L. - Plant Fact Sheet - Plant Materials Center, Beltsville, MD

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Published by: Maryland Native Plant Resources on Oct 14, 2012
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Plant Fact Sheet
COMMON BONESET
 Eupatorium perfoliatum
L.
 
Plant Symbol = EUPE3
Contributed by: USDA NRCS National Plant MaterialsCenter, Beltsville, MD
Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDASCS. 1989.
 Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species
. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln, Nebraska
Alternate Names
Common boneset, Thoroughwort
Uses
 Ethnobotanical:
The leaves have been used to treatdengue fever. Modern German research suggests thatCommon Boneset may act as a general immune systemstimulant. It has also been used as a diaphoretic and weak anti-inflammatory.Caution
:
 Common Boneset is emeticand laxative in large doses, and it may containpyrrolizidine alkaloids that are potentially harmful to theliver.
 Landscaping and wildlife:
The nectar from the flowers of Common Boneset is very attractive to a variety of pollinators, including bees, wasps, and butterflies. TheSwamp Sparrow supplements its diet with CommonBoneset seeds. Various caterpillars, such as
Phragmatobia lineate
(Lined Ruby Tiger Moth),
 Papaipema cataphracta
(Burdock Borer Moth),
Schiniatrifascia
(Three-lined Flower Moth),
Chlorochlamyschloroleucaria
(blackberry looper),
Semiothisa continuata
(Geometrid Moth sp.)
 
and
 Haploa clymene
(ClymeneMoth) eat various portions of the plant.
Status
Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your StateDepartment of Natural Resources for this plant’s currentstatus (e.g. threatened or endangered species, statenoxious status, and wetland indicator values).
Description and Adaptation
Common Boneset is a native perennial wildflower thatgrows from 2 - 4 feet tall. The central stem is covered inlong white hairs and is unbranched with the exception of afew flowering side stems near the apex of the plant. Thenarrow, lanceolate (tapering), opposite leaves grow up to8 inches long and 2 inches across. The bases of the leavestend to grow together, making it appear as if the centralstem perforates the leaves. Two- to eight-inch clusters of fragrant white flowers (with approximately 15 florets perflower head) appear in late summer or early fall. Theflorets produce wind-dispersed small dry seed with hair-like bristles. The fibrous root system frequently producesrhizomes (subterraneanhorizontalstemswithshoots aboveandrootsbelow), which create small colonies.
 Distribution:
Common Boneset prefers moist or wetconditions, soil with a significant amount of organicmatter, and full to partial sun. It populates a variety of wetland habitats across eastern North America fromQuebec south to Florida and west to Texas and Manitoba(USDA cold hardiness zones 2 - 10).
Establishment
Seed Propagation
Seeds ripen about a month after flowering and should becollected when the heads dry, split and the fluffy seedbegins to float away. If collected earlier, dry the seedheads for 1 - 2 weeks in open paper bags. If seeds aresown directly, sow in the fall and sow thickly asgermination rates are typically low. For containerproduction, a cold-moist pretreatment at 40 degreesFahrenheit for 3 weeks to 3 months will increasegermination percentages. After pretreatment, sow seedsin a fine germination mix containing milled sphagnummoss. Transplant to potting mix after seeds havegerminated. Seeds germinate at 70 - 85 degreesFahrenheit and in the
 
presence of light. Use a greenhousewith alternating temperatures (day temperatures 70 - 85degrees Fahrenheit, night temperatures 65 - 68 degreesFahrenheit). Seeds will last up to 3 years if stored in acold (40 degrees Fahrenheit) and dry (30% relativehumidity) environment.

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