Van Schevensteen R 7/18/06 p3/7
While the typical design and physical and electrical characteristics of dry-typetransformers, especially cast resin transformers, will limit their use to mediumvoltage applications (<36kV), liquid-filled transformers can also be built for HVand UHV systems. The Bio-SLIM® line offers designs up to 66kV.
Compared to dry-type transformers, (Bio-)SLIM® transformers are the better alternative for installations at high altitudes and in severe atmospheres. SLIM®transformers have been installed in the mountains near Mont Blanc. They hardlysuffer from thin air or high humidity as dry-type transformers in which the air isboth cooling and insulating medium. Condensation on the tank surface will notcreate creepage paths that may lead to flashover, as is the case when the castcoil surface becomes wet.
Liquid-filled transformers have a mixed insulation system of a liquid plusimpregnation cellulose or NOMEX
, while cast resin transformers have a systemof solid encapsulating resin and air. The glassy condition of the solid resin makesit very hard and brittle. This gives several disadvantages regarding electrical,mechanical, thermal and chemical stresses of which some are elaborated in thenext points.
In liquid-filled transformers, the MV-windings are generally wound directly ontothe LV-winding creating one solid block. This set of windings is then solidlyanchored onto the core legs. All this improves the ability to
withstand short-circuits, vibrations, shocks
and earthquakes. In cast resin transformers thewindings are generally separated from the core and from each other, by rubber support blocks.
The large liquid volume with its high thermal time-constant is a good buffer for heat generated by the windings under
conditions and thermal shocks.
Liquid-filled transformers with continuous layer windings on the MV-side have aninherent better withstand against
(such as switching impulses,lightning and fast transients) than cast resin transformers with disc windings.Layer windings allow a more linear voltage distribution along the winding, givinglower electrical gradients and smaller voltage stresses. Properly liquid-impregnated inter-layerinsulation is a far better insulating system than vacuumresin casting.
A liquid has the inherent feature of
. If a small discharge occurs, or gas is formed on a critical path, the moving liquid is able to take that away beforeit can lead to a real failure. If the DGA monitoring would show too highconcentrations of gasses, it is possible to streamline and re-use the liquid on-site.If the analysis of the gasses would reveal possible internal discharges, aging or arcing, the liquid-filled transformer can be more easily repaired than a cast resintransformer. In such transformers, it is “all-or-nothing”, the resin mould does notallow repair.
The NOMEX® and silicone/ester insulating system, as used in the (Bio-)SLIM®,will hardly age, seen the design operating conditions leave sufficient safetymargins. This increased life expectance, together with the low no-load loss level,results in an optimal TOC-evaluation, compared to dry-type transformers.