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Intro to Statics and Dynamics - A. Ruina, R. Pratap

# Intro to Statics and Dynamics - A. Ruina, R. Pratap

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11/26/2013

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Introductionto
S
TATICS
and
D
YNAMICS
1
2
N
1
2
s
s
ˆ
ı
ˆ

ˆ
k
Andy Ruina
and
Rudra Pratap
Pre-printforOxfordUniversityPress,January2002

Summary of Mechanics
0) The laws of mechanics apply to any collection of material or ‘body.’
Thisbodycouldbetheoverallsystemofstudyoranypartofit.Intheequationsbelow,theforcesandmomentsarethosethatshowonafreebodydiagram.Interactingbodiescauseequalandoppositeforcesandmomentsoneachother.
I) Linear Momentum Balance (LMB)/Force Balance
EquationofMotion
i
=˙
L
Thetotalforceonabodyisequaltoitsrateofchangeoflinearmomentum.(I)Impulse-momentum(integratingintime)

2
1
i
·
dt
=
L
Netimpulseisequaltothechangeinmomentum.(Ia)Conservationofmomentum(if
i
=
0
)
˙
L
=
0
L
=
L
2
L
1
=
0
When there is no net force the linearmomentum does not change.(Ib)Statics(if
˙
L
isnegligible)
i
=
0
If the inertial terms are zero thenet force on system is zero.(Ic)
II) Angular Momentum Balance (AMB)/Moment Balance
Equationofmotion
C
=
˙˙
C
The sum of moments is equal to therateofchangeofangularmomentum.(II)Impulse-momentum(angular)(integratingintime)

2
1
C
dt
=
C
The net angular impulse is equal tothechangeinangularmomentum.(IIa)Conservationofangularmomentum(if
C
=
0
)
˙
C
=
0
C
=
C2
C1
=
0
If there is no net moment about pointC then the angular momentum aboutpoint C does not change.(IIb)Statics(if
˙
C
isnegligible)
C
=
0
If the inertial terms are zero then thetotal moment on the system is zero.(IIc)
III) Power Balance (1st law of thermodynamics)
Equationofmotion
˙
Q
+
P
=˙
E
K
+˙
E
P
+˙
E
int
 
˙
E
Heatﬂowplusmechanicalpowerintoasystemisequaltoitschangeinenergy(kinetic+potential+internal).(III)forﬁnitetime

2
1
˙
Qd
+

2
1
Pdt
=
E
Thenetenergyﬂowgoinginisequaltothenetchangeinenergy.(IIIa)ConservationofEnergy(if
˙
Q
=
P
=
0)
˙
E
=
0
E
=
2
E
1
=
0Ifnoenergyowsintoasystem,then itsenergydoesnotchange.(IIIb)Statics(if
˙
E
K
isnegligible)
˙
Q
+
P
=˙
E
P
+˙
E
int
If there is no change of kinetic energythen the change of potential andinternal energy is due to mechanicalwork and heat flow.(IIIc)PureMechanics(ifheatﬂowanddissipationarenegligible)
P
=˙
E
K
+˙
E
P
In a system well modeled as purelymechanical the change of kineticand potential energy is due to mechanicalwork.(IIId)

Some De
nitions
r
or
x
Position
.
e
.
g
.,
r
i
r
i
/
O
isthepositionofapointi relative to the origin, O)
v
r
d
Velocity
.
e
.
g
.,
v
i
v
i
/
O
isthevelocityofapointirelativetoO,measuredinanon-rotatingreference frame)
a
v
d
=
2
r
dt
2
Acceleration
.
e
.
g
.,
a
i
a
i
/
O
is the acceleration of apoint
i
relative to O, measured in a New-tonian frame)
ω
Angular(Please also look at the tables inside the back cover.)velocity Ameasureofrotationalvelocityofarigidbody.
α
˙
ω
Angular acceleration A measure of rotational acceleration of arigid body.
L
m
i
v
i
discrete

v
dm
continuousLinear momentum A measure of a system
s net translationalrate (weighted by mass).
=
m
tot
v
cm
˙
L
m
i
a
i
discrete

a
dm
continuousRate of change of linearmomentumTheaspectofmotionthatbalancesthenetforce on a system.
=
m
tot
a
cm
C
r
i
/
C
×
m
i
v
i
discrete

r
/
×
v
dm
continuousAngular momentum aboutpoint CA measure of the rotational rate of a sys-tem about a point C (weighted by massand distance from C).
˙
C
r
i
/
C
×
m
i
a
i
discrete

r
/
×
a
dm
continuousRate of change of angular mo-mentum about point CTheaspectofmotionthatbalancesthenettorque on a system about a point C.
E
K
12
m
i
v
2
i
discrete
12

v
2
dm
continuousKinetic energy A
scalar
measure of net system motion.
E
int
=
(heat-like terms) Internal energy The non-kinetic non-potential part of asystem
s total energy.
P
i
·
v
i
+
i
·
ω
i
Power of forces and torques The mechanical energy
ow into a sys-tem. Also,
P
˙
, rate of work.[
cm
]
I
cm xx
cm xy
cm xz
I
cm xy
cm yy
cm yz
I
cm xz
cm yz
cm zz
MomentofinertiamatrixaboutcmA measure of how mass is distributed ina rigid body.

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