Features of Ancestral Environments
For 98% of human evolutionary history, our ancestors:
lived as hunters and gatherers (Kelly, 1995), with men doing most hunting andwomen doing most gathering (Wood & Eagly, 2002) –
dwelt in small, cooperative bands (Richerson & Boyd, 2005) –
were biologically-related to most other tribe/group members (Foley, 1992) –
met strangers infrequently (Wright, 1994) –
lived in the same group their entire lives (Kelly, 1995) –
were raised by kin, extended family members, and tribe members, with oldersibs helping to raise younger sibs (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1989) –
cooperated extensively with kin and non-kin (Brewer & Caporeal, 2006)
These conditions are
for the evolution of altruism (Cosmides & Tooby,1992).
Cooperative groups were the primary
of early humans(Brewer & Caporeal, 1990).