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Conservation Development in Texas

Conservation Development in Texas

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Conservation Development in Texas
Conservation Development in Texas

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Published by: Maryland Native Plant Resources on Oct 16, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Conservation andManagement of North AmericanBumble Bees
ByDale F. Schweitzer, Nicole A. Capuano,Bruce E. Young, and Sheila R. Colla
 A product of the USDA Forest Service and NatureServe
with funding from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
Conservation and Management of North American Bumble Bees
Dale F. Schweitzer
, Nicole A. Capuano
,Bruce E. Young
, and Sheila R. Colla
NatureServe, 4600 North Fiarax Dr., Floor 7, Arlington, VA 22203
Biology Department, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
Cite this document as:
Schweitzer, D.F., N.A. Capuano, B.E. Young, and S.R. Colla. 2012.
Conservation and management of North American bumble bees.
NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, and USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C.
Report coordination by Pollinator PartnershipDesigner: Marguerite Meyer 
This version corrects an error in Figure 1 that appears in the print version. Nunavut has been distinguished fromNorthwest Territories and the geographic projection has been changed to better depict northern North America.
NatureServe and the U.S. Forest Service
Management recommendations center on providing suitable nesting and oraginghabitat in close proximity during the annual period o bumble bee activity. The majorrecommendations are:Minimize exposure to pesticides.
o toxins and avoid drit.
 bees can fnd nesting and overwintering sites.
spring to late summer.
and even weeds to improve bee density and diversity.
always available.
 bees or crop pollination to prevent the spread o diseases. Ater reviewing the literature on bumble bee conservation and management, a numbero gaps in our knowledge about bumble bee biology become apparent. These gaps, listedhere to stimulate research in dierent regions o North America, include:
•Howarebumblebeepopulationschangingovertime?•Howimportantareforestedhabitatsforbumblebeediversity?•Whathabitatsdobumblebeesuseforoverwintering?•Howdohabitats,includinghuman-alteredones,varyinqualityforbumblebees?•Doareaswhereseverelydecliningspeciesremainsharecommonhabitatorclimaticfeatures?•Whataretheforagingneedsanddietbreadthofbumblebeespecies?•Howarebumblebeesaffectedbyreandremanagement?•Howdotoxinsaffectbumblebeesdifferentlyfromhoneybees?•Howbroadisthethreatofdiseasesfromnon-nativebeesspillingovertonative bumblebees?
This document provides a brie over
 view o the diversity, natural history,conservation status, and manage
ment o North American bumble bees, genus
. The spring to late summer period o colony ound
ing, build up, and production o reproductive individuals, ollowed
 provide the natural history basis ormanagement considerations o theapproximately 46 North Americanspecies. Most bumble bee species arecurrently not threatened or docu
mented as declining except in areaso intensive agriculture. Eight spe
cies rom three subgenera, however,have declined drastically during the
species that are obligate parasiteson other declining species. The pathogen spillover hypothesis, which proposes that diseases rom inectedcommercial colonies imported romEurope are inecting native popula
 tions o closely related species, mayexplain the sharp declines o mostspecies. Other threats to bumble bees include climate change, loss o nesting and oraging habitats and pesticide use.

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