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Conservation Development in Texas

Conservation Development in Texas

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Conservation Development in Texas
Conservation Development in Texas

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Published by: Maryland Native Plant Resources on Oct 16, 2012
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02/21/2014

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Conservation andManagement of North AmericanBumble Bees
ByDale F. Schweitzer, Nicole A. Capuano,Bruce E. Young, and Sheila R. Colla
 A product of the USDA Forest Service and NatureServe
with funding from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
 
Conservation and Management of North American Bumble Bees
Dale F. Schweitzer
1
, Nicole A. Capuano
1
,Bruce E. Young
1
, and Sheila R. Colla
21
NatureServe, 4600 North Fiarax Dr., Floor 7, Arlington, VA 22203
2
Biology Department, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
Cite this document as:
Schweitzer, D.F., N.A. Capuano, B.E. Young, and S.R. Colla. 2012.
Conservation and management of North American bumble bees.
NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, and USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C.
Report coordination by Pollinator PartnershipDesigner: Marguerite Meyer 
This version corrects an error in Figure 1 that appears in the print version. Nunavut has been distinguished fromNorthwest Territories and the geographic projection has been changed to better depict northern North America.
 
3
NatureServe and the U.S. Forest Service
Management recommendations center on providing suitable nesting and oraginghabitat in close proximity during the annual period o bumble bee activity. The majorrecommendations are:Minimize exposure to pesticides.
•Avoidsprayingwhileacropisinbloom.•Whensprayingisnecessary,dosounderconditionsthatpromoterapidbreakdown
o toxins and avoid drit.
•Providehabitatfornestingandoverwinteringsites.•Leaveunplowed,undisturbedareaswithlogsandclumpsofgrasswherebumble
 bees can fnd nesting and overwintering sites.
•Whennestingsitesarelimited,considerprovidingarticialnestboxes.•Assurecontinuityofnectarandpollenresourceswhenbumblebeesareactivefrom
spring to late summer.
•Increaseabundanceanddiversityofwildowers,suitablegardenowers,crops,
and even weeds to improve bee density and diversity.
•Mowwhenbumblebeesaredormant,ifpossible.•Whensummermowingisnecessary,staggereldstoensurethatsomeowersare
always available.
•Timeprescribedburnsasrecommendedformowing.•Ensurethatnestinghabitatisincloseproximity(500-800m;0.3-0.5mi)toforaging
habitat.
•Encourageagriculturalauthoritiestoplacetightrestrictionsontheuseofbumble
 bees or crop pollination to prevent the spread o diseases. Ater reviewing the literature on bumble bee conservation and management, a numbero gaps in our knowledge about bumble bee biology become apparent. These gaps, listedhere to stimulate research in dierent regions o North America, include:
•Howarebumblebeepopulationschangingovertime?•Howimportantareforestedhabitatsforbumblebeediversity?•Whathabitatsdobumblebeesuseforoverwintering?•Howdohabitats,includinghuman-alteredones,varyinqualityforbumblebees?•Doareaswhereseverelydecliningspeciesremainsharecommonhabitatorclimaticfeatures?•Whataretheforagingneedsanddietbreadthofbumblebeespecies?•Howarebumblebeesaffectedbyreandremanagement?•Howdotoxinsaffectbumblebeesdifferentlyfromhoneybees?•Howbroadisthethreatofdiseasesfromnon-nativebeesspillingovertonative bumblebees?
ExecutiveSummary
 
This document provides a brie over
-
 view o the diversity, natural history,conservation status, and manage
-
ment o North American bumble bees, genus
 Bombus
. The spring to late summer period o colony ound
-
ing, build up, and production o reproductive individuals, ollowed
 bytheoverwinteringofnewqueens
 provide the natural history basis ormanagement considerations o theapproximately 46 North Americanspecies. Most bumble bee species arecurrently not threatened or docu
-
mented as declining except in areaso intensive agriculture. Eight spe
-
cies rom three subgenera, however,have declined drastically during the
 last15-20years.Theseincludethree
species that are obligate parasiteson other declining species. The pathogen spillover hypothesis, which proposes that diseases rom inectedcommercial colonies imported romEurope are inecting native popula
-
 tions o closely related species, mayexplain the sharp declines o mostspecies. Other threats to bumble bees include climate change, loss o nesting and oraging habitats and pesticide use.

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