502 THE CATHOLIC BIBLICAL QUARTERLY I 56, 1994unified opposition to Jesus on the part of all of the groups of leaders transcends geographical boundaries.
Those who would distinguish the groups of Jewish leaders point out thatthe Pharisees appear mainly in Galilee, do not confront Jesus directly, andchallenge him primarily on matters of religious, legal observance. The chief priests, scribes, and elders appear as a distinct group only after Jesus hasentered Jerusalem; they confront Jesus directly and challenge him on theissue of authority.
There is, however, some overlapping, with the Phariseescontinuing to appear after Jesus has left Galilee (once [10:2] after he hasentered Judea, and once [12:13] after he has entered Jerusalem), and with thescribes appearing both alone and with the Pharisees in Galilee, and bothalone and with the chief priests or elders, or with both, in Jerusalem.
RobertMowery, however, has shown that when one considers the formal features of the Marcan references this overlapping does not diminish the clarity of thedistinction drawn between the two groups. Most of the Galilean referencesto the Pharisees use the collective designation "the Pharisees," while the twonon-Galilean references (10:2; 12:13) do not.
Most of the references to thescribes in narrative material set in Jerusalem use the collective designation"the scribes," while none of the six narrative references to scribes outside of Jerusalem use this designation.
There are four nonnarrative references toscribes outside of Jerusalem. All four use the collective designation "thescribes," but all four refer to scribes who were absent.
Mowery can conclude,then, that in spite of the apparent overlap there is strong textual support for
of the story and the dominant type of action in each: Jesus preaching the word, and the messiah-king coming into his city. For M. Boring ("Mark
and the Beginning of the Gospel,"
52  45-46), geography structures not the biography of Jesus but narrative Chris-tology.
J. D. Kingsbury, "The Religious Authorities in the Gospel of Mark,"
36 (1990) 46.
29, 81-82; D. Lührmann, "Die Pharisäer und die Schriftgelehrten im Markusevangelium,"
(1987) 172. For S. H. Smith ("The Role of Jesus'Opponents in the Markan Drama,"
35  171), up to 8:11-13 the Pharisees'"role hasbeen confined to debating matters of halakhah related ... to the eating
For Malbon("Jewish Leaders," 266-67), "the scribes and the Pharisees raise religious objections. . . . Thechief priests, scribes, and elders raise also what must be called political objections, based on theirstruggle with Jesus for authority and influence over the people."
Smith ("Role of Jesus' Opponents," 167), rejecting the claim of some redaction criticsthat the scribes of the passion narrative differ from those of the Galilean controversies, maintains,from a literary perspective, that they are the one group that draws the story of Jesus'conflict with the religious establishment into a coherent whole.
R. L. Mowery, "Pharisees and Scribes, Galilee and Jerusalem,"
In 2:6,16; 3:22; 7:1,5; 9:14 (ibid., 267).
In 1:22; 8:31; 9:11; 10:33 (ibid.)