Assessment of Pupil
Equal in size (3
7 mm in diameter)
- Pupil Equally Round Reactive to Light and Accommodation and Convergencea.
Pupil’s direct and consensual reaction to light
Illuminated pupil should constrict (1
illuminated pupil constricts
Equal responses on both pupil
Ask PT to look straight, penlight at the side and shine pupil directly. Opposite eye should alsoconstrict (consensual reflect)b.
Pupil’s reaction to
Ask PT to look at the object 4
6 inches away and then in line with the bridge of the nose (papalapit)
Pupil dilates when looking at far objectsb.
Pupil constricts when looking at near objectsc.
Pupil converge when near
objects are moved towards the nose (become’s cross –
Assessment of Visual Acuity (Near and Distance Vision)2 Visual Acuity Charts
Snellen Alphabet Chart
Most common to test vision
Assessing visual acuity in distance vision
Ask PT to stand at 20ft away from the chart and cover his Left Eye with an opaque object.
Ask to read the letters on one line from top (E) to bottom until patient can no longer read the letters.
Repeat procedure to right eye.
Normal Vision of 0 / 20 on Snellen Chart2.
Visual Acuity is recorded as fraction:20
Distance between patient & snellen chart20
Distance from which the patient with normal vision could read the lines at 20 feet away from chart.3.
The higher the denominator, the poorer vision4.
Not usually demonstrated until 5
Other: Assessing Visual Acuity (Near Vision)
if there’s no snellen provide reading material
Ask PT to read newsprint from large to small letters (with corrective lenses if client has one)
PT can read newsprint from large to small letters2.
For children and adults who can’t read
Cover left eye of PT then point to “E”.
Ask where the letter facesc.
Repeat to right eye.