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Tzvetan Todorov The Splendor and Misery of Rhetoric

Tzvetan Todorov The Splendor and Misery of Rhetoric

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Published by Michael Kaplan

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Published by: Michael Kaplan on Oct 16, 2012
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06/13/2013

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. 
From,
Theorleo of
the
Symbol
Tzvetnn
T
odoro
v
(tr.
C.Por
lc
r)
(ltha
c
o,
NY:
Cornell
U.P.
1982)
2
The Splendor and
Misery
of
Rhetoric
The
fil~t
II
feal
Cfl."
0'
rhdoric
(COincicle.
~rr~o.imalely
wllh
Ih~
beginning
01
our
~r.l.
T.l
(ilus
I~n
~
itss
tmy
11\
Ius ,ustly lamou,I
)inloK
"t
011
Orarars.
Th
every first
senten
ce
((~nv('ys
an
awarenfSS
of
drdin
e:"O
ur
ar.~
abovr
alt,
bauen
amI,
lfll'r,
'd
"I
Ihe r,tory
01
c1O<Juence,
sc.,cely
r
ela
insIhe
wry
n.m
~
01
'
.".Ior:
.lIhough
"OldierIw
lilut
s
\,lopml
,
,1
wHh
Iht.,
rcnowllt"l1
I.lk"
..
,If
~(l
malt~
distinguished
orators
.
"I
.
It
would
be
wrnnr,
In
SCI'
inth
ese
wurth
nolhmf~
mUfe
t.~iln
J
rcformul.,Iion
ofI ll.pe
rennial
n
us
l " l ~ i
(
r
("erence
tn
lilt!.
good
old
(bys
."
Ta
citus"
.
own
ilnaly
s('s
and
as
huty
(,f
thr
('
v~.luhn"
of
rheluric
in his
.1.,)'
~(IU"lty
1V~1t
d~null1slr
.
ll~
Ihe
r~ahly
01
Ih.c
hange
...
'"
II
.
Whatwasthe
rh
e
tor
ic
of"('
arher
pe
rlnds
.
In
a
we
-
Known
I·
I"
"I
it
i
.
'In>i
ul
tIt
I,
hr
ase.
thuuR,h
(lnt"
w
h o
~
I'
(lri~~i"
..
IIOP
;U'
I~
~'
.
IInl
his
1<1""
pCls
ua
s
'on
.
Or,
it
S
"ri
s
toth-
put
s
it
at
'U'
w.
;
"ml"h
I
r
61
I"ic
"IUu:
turk
may
Il(.
'
Jt,fint"
.
a~
Ihe f"fully uf
ub:iCrvinc
in
any
~h'en
G
'
~l
'
Ihe tlvalbhl
c
m
.
~an~
tlf
rc,~u:1siun"
(I
.
2,
1355(-1)
.
Tilt
. 
,,1
'i,
'd
III
1""'1'1":"
i
..
l'I'
''
I"''II\
't',
tldim·d
. ,
~
l'I
t
'd
\"('
S
p(
"'f
h I
h
...
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fIt,ll
.I
's
ill,"
,;
.
I111
'
h.
,
I"
tin
..
lwrs
.I{h,·h,,·u·
I:.-.t
sps
l."'I
~
II"I;I
'
Ihll
.I~
hum
-it
is
nul
(
l'lh
'(
'r
ncc.f
wit"
\llIt~ri1nn
's
"s
s
tlfh
-t"ul
.1S
,,(liun
;
!
~l\'
lingtli
!;
t
ir
fill
III
ht
'
nmlcS
an
illJ;redicnt
of
it
~Iobal
ad
til
utln
·
nllmir.tliun
(nl
whit'h
JWrstlolsittn
is llll'
musl
c
har.l
f
lcrislic
typt·)
.
Rheloric
eft
'a
ls
wilh
III('
f"".-lions
III
Spt
't"
'h,
IUlt
il
!"
slrut:lUft',
lis
um'
nmsl,tnl
is
II"
,
ul'in
'
livl'
it
Sl
'
\.''''S 1o
.•
thil'vl
':
lu
pl'rSlliHll'
(ur,
in
the
It."nninolll)W
01
tl
later
tl~e,
In ills
'rurt,
10
O1I1V(",
and
10
rlr'l~")
'
'.in",ui
.;
li,'
11H',
IU
S .
In·
t.II':"11
il1lo
.;1
'\'
''0111
III
Ih,'
.
I,
'ul
Ih.I'
Iht'y
'nlol),
ht
'
w:
"llill
ft',
lCh
this
"l';t
'
di\'t'
,
Rlwlnrk
sh,"it
'~
11ll'
nU'.In:;
Ih.11.111,.\\,
.1
dUl
st'"
('nll
III
llt.,
.chievcd.
II
isnllls
urprising
I"
dis<I1ver
Ih.t
the
m,·I'l'h
.
"
"sed
ill
rht'ltlric
I
.
\It'
~
i':U,I'"
rlU'ttlri
c.:
il
s
df
art
'
.lhYOly~
hil
s~
J
till
Ihi
s
h'
l"lion
nf "wail
S
Itl
~
11,
I
,
RIU'lnrk
is
stlllwlillll'S
\'umpi1r
('
d
10
O\('
,
Iit-,,1
kdll\i'll""
o
PlHdinw
:;
lu
mililar\'
~1r.ltt'J.~~
·
.
'
1Ims
,
in
A
r
i
~
·
1(Jlle:
It
is
dl
'
,u
.
tlIl'II, Ih.I'
rhl'lur
ic
..'
is
USt
'fu
',
II
~~
rll
'
ar
,
furlllt'r
,Ihal
II~
flln("lilln
b
IIHI
:-oi
l11l''''
In
';
111
', 1
0
,
,1
in
1t(
',
",
u"dinJ;,
hul
rllther
lu
Liisc{lY
..
r
Iht,
means
ttl
cumintt
a~
n('.u
such
su((cs~
as)
Ihe
circumslan
c('s
uf
('.1Ch
particular
G1S«.'
..
lInw,
In
thi~
il
resrm·
hlc!Ii
nil
nlhl'r
art
s,
hlr
l')t.lmrlt·.
il
is
not
Ill('
h",diu"
of
nU'lli
(inl'
!liimply
lu
",.I~"·
.•
man
qUitl' h
.
.llthy,
hul
III
Jlul
him
as
far
A!'
m.lY
t'lt'
UII
IllI'ft.,.,1
10 IlI'.llIh;
il
i
.
,"'I"
"il-l,'Itl
,:i\'l'
,',n
'
III'"I
bralml,.,1
l'Vt'l1
In
Ih"
St.
,
whu
COlO
nl'
v,
'r
('
''ioy
SUU,h'
h
l"
.llih
.
IRI,,
·I.,"
t,
tJ
5~
1'1
Or,
in
Ihl'
RI,d.";(
II
"d
IIntHU;II".
(Tn
Gaill~
Hrr
c
nnius
(Ill
Ih('
Th('nr~-
(If
,'
.
hli,'
S
p,
'a
l..in.~).
1r00,lititUl.,ltv
.Ithilt"",,1
10
C
in'ru
:
-This
.'''nl\~m.nl
nlI"picsin
'rc~kinr"
like
Ih.
",
.
yinr,..(sol diffsin
1>,111
,·,
"n
n';lllilybrin.: vicln,v"
(II',
III,
t~l
.
It
is
clt',u
th.II
IIU'
~pirit
(It
rhdtlri<"
is
rra~nlo11ic
_HH'
l
lr
IIt.ll
\'f'n
'
l'I~,'n
il11l1"lr.,':
\\"h,lh'v('r
Ih,'
,'
ill
"l1l1
..
t."h
·
'
·~
"'
Ih,
'
,'
:111
';
,'
dt'
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dnl,
.111\'
11111
~
1
I·,'
.l
bh..·
h •.
dlil'Yl'
(':I
.
·S
"'11'1.
I
It
l'
a
ssorlt'd
df'(1.1..
lion
sIlf
rrin
t"i
p'"
dllslC'rt'tI
.,1
Ih
.
('nlrann'
or
lilt' t'x
it
tl(
Ih~
'
rhf'lorir.ll
t','ifif"
hardly
prevl
'
nl
th("
el'"l"l'nl
elralur
frum
II
s
in~h
:
~
,ut
f(lr
l,.trl'4I
"
I
'
~
",ho
,
,'
i"
.;
lin'
i
~
"I'p.ln·nl
,,"1\'
III
him
:-;dl.
?
:
~
:l'
lh
dpl
".
111.1
,.
IIPII
/"
t'II,
"1'"
,11
~
f"
""
"
,,\,,
'1'
nllll·r
.;
;
,
II'
Y
cr\
'
~n~
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..
g'Hkl
pr
o\
'
i",'"
Ih.lf
till'
obi
n·
th,'
i
~
.
llIailwd
,,
\!lY
,,,
.,,1.
1I101\'
t
~·
dli,
'
,11
ill,,
:;;
il
11111:'
,
1
simply
l't,
lI
:-.
t'
,1
lowartl
""
 
.'
62
TIlf.OMI~S
OF
Tin
::
SVMBUl
appropriate
end.
W~
lHay
rCf.
,
.
1
Ihe
"topicOt)"
ellumcr~'liuIlS
th
.
t
foresee all
possible cases
and
rind
a
solulinn
'ur
eat
:h:
ElClernal
C
ircum5Ian
c
e~
:
De
sc
ent
-in
prais4':
Iht'
ann
's
lors of
whum
he
l~
tiprung;
if
hl'
is
uf
illu:dfiuu:,
lk~n
~
lIl
.
I,,:
II.b
llf.,t:u
Iheir
peer
or
superior; il
01
humble dcsecnl.he has had his
support. nol in
th(:'
virtul
's
ni his
anccslUfS.
but in his
own
.In
censure:
if
he
Is
of
iUustriuus
descent
he
has
bet:n
a llis
ll"an
-
tn
his forebears;
If
of
low
dcS("t
·
nt.
he
is
nonc
lilt'
I~~s
a
\tishnnour
even
10
Ihese.
I
KIwI.
","k
..
111.7.
IJI
Rhetoric
leaches
its
prilclilinnt'rs to
lise
the
tYlll'
ul
discoursesuilcd
to
ea
ch
parlk
'lIlar
l:a
su.
'
Il,e
key
nolion
0'
rh~lnri
c
i~
Iherclore Ihe nuliun
01
suilabilily.
apprul-'rialcncss
(J'''',,,,,,.
dr'-II,,,,,,),
as
I\.lhcrl Yun h.
,s puintctl
Hul
("an
arbilrary
simplilicalion
hasmade
01
suilabilily a
mmpoilenl
"I doculion.
whereas
il is
II,,· j;uidinj; I,,·
illdple
Ih
1
j;lIwrns
Ihewhole
arl of
speakinj;")
.Suilal>ilily
is
Ihe b.lsis .. I .·lIi.·
adly.
Ihlls
uf
clOtlucnce
.
A':J
Ci":l'rt)
wrill':.,
ii,
hi:;
0,,,,,,,
:This.
indeed.
is
the
furm of
wi:o:;t.imn
th
ai
the
umlm
must espe
dally employ
-h)
.hl,IP'
hilU
s
d.
In
lk.'l".I
S
iuus
.
tlhl
,wlsnlls
.
In
my
opinion
on~
I1lu
sl nnl
s
peak
in
Ittl:'
s.unc
slylc
at
_III
IilUl
S.
nor
~fore
all
people. nnr
a~.'insl
all
opptllwnls
.
nur
in
tldcn
cc
01
.til
client"
nor
jn
partnership
with
all
advocates
.
ftc. there
lore.
wiU
be
eloquenl who
(an
ada pi his speech lu iii all con·
ceivable
circumstances
.
IU
:
.l\f
-
JU.lVI.
1231
Speech
is
above
allhlOc
liunal;
It)
1)('
fuo
r
lional
b
lu
lw..'
filling.
Su
ch
WiI,S
rheluri
c
before
il!J
crisis
.
Ca
n
we
lraCl~
tht!
patll
'rom
this pi
c
ture
to
the
uri,.;in.
Ihl'
caust'S
ur
Ihe
cri:.is? Yes.
if
we
alt~
willingto
goalung
with
the analyses
uf
·
~
·
"d'us.
\dh'
lIuks
.hd-
oric
Liirecily
10
politics
ami
sudety.
In
hi~
Vil·W
....
It"'I"l'un
.
I'ru
gre
..
dso long
.
dS
ilaclually
served
sollie
purpose. so
long
as
il
was
an
effective
inslrumen
.
lhal
waS
unly pussiblc.
huwever.
inatitale
in
which
speed.
hild
puw.:r
:
in
Hlh~r
wurds
.
in
a
free
and
democralic
slale
.
-Creal
d"'I"ence
.like a
/IallIe.
i.
I~.I
b~'
luel.
i,
l'xrilt.:'J
lly
motion,
alh
.1
~rows
hri~hl
as
il
htlnl
s"
(Vi,I"tS"",
XXXVI).
Now Ihis luel is prnvide.l.
in
a
dem"cra
cy.
by
Ihe .Iesliny
"f
people: "In
addili"n
.Ihere wao
Ihe
hillh r.,nk
"I
IIII'
dc/endanl.
ilnd
lhe
Imporlanc,-'
n'
Iht..
'
issu,~~.
wh"
.-
h
tt'
Ihems,'lv,'~
an'
iu
lin
'
hi~hctfl
dt..,t;,rcc
nmJud"l'
lit
l'
ltlllUt'nn'
.
I;
or
IIU'
l'tIWl'r
of
~enius
grows
with
lh~
impul.an~t.·
nf
allolirs.
nur
,-
'
an
;:u'yune
pru
duce
.l
sJ"t.
t.'t.
h
Ih.,.
i~
"rlUi.UtI
,1Ih.'
ft..·lIuwlh',1
1I
..
1,'ss
h,'
h.,~
ftl'lIul
a case
worlhy
01
il
"(
...
VII).
fl
.\
'I
h,'
r
t.
'qlli
s
llt..'
IHllliulI is
.1
S::'
Wl.'
t.I
hy
Ihe
"l.'l'dulH
tilciliLl.·US
Il)
spt'.,k
of
;
,"ylhing
,
willwul
ht'in~
inhihih'tI hy
ctlns
idl'fillioo
s
ofrauk
or
pn
s
ull
,
willi
".ht..'
privill
'
J.:C
Ih.lt
w.'s
~r
'
I I \ ' l ' l J 
uf
all.Il'klllg
Ilu'
IHII
~.
I
pnw,·ftul
IIWII
"
(!II)
All
Ih
,
ll
j,
.
1·"
...
·.i .
l
·
to
..
ll'
ill
.1
'.
I.llt'
where iu
slillllilm.II
l'llnstrainl
s
.UL'
w""
k
_
nd
Wht'fl'
Ihe
pt)Wl'r uJ
.a
t1c1il)('r.llivl' .l
ss
l'mbl)'is
""I
'V
slr,lOl!..
thl'!'>l'
""IIUrl'
S
l>t..
·
il\~
th
l.'
L.lSis
uf
lh
'
"H
..
r.h
·Y.
ThL'sC ..In'
tltl.'
h'nus
ill
whi
t'
t.
'
1
,
l l l l l l
~
d',If.IL
·'
lerill'S Iltt' I'fl"'
t',lin
hpt·rit
..
l:
"
WI
..
u
l
'
V"f,
'
thilll~
W,IS
in
,I
stall'
H'
l'lInlllSiuli
.
111-1
1,llJ..l'l1
.,
s i l l t ~ I , ' 
UVt·rM"'I.
".I,
'h tll.lltll'
W.I~
nm
'
sitleretl
as
wi
st
,
as
IIU'
l·rr.ln'
pt'ollll'
could
ht'
nHI'
:
ill
("(.,(t
Ih.lt
I ..
\Vas"
(
..
.
IVI)
'"
lllf
~I.I'"
1t
..
I,,I'"
','ug
,I'"
it
\\
',
IIIII,."
'
,I
.
IIIIIII
's,,,
!\-.
..
Uilliullhlnll\'
pn,dtll,'d
,I
IIInn'
"i~tlrl)w;
dlhlll"IIl
'
l',
I"
si
.I
S
.10
1111
'
(Ulli",Ih-d
lid,1
!'IOtlllt
"'
s
,·t,,.I.Iin
I1Itll,'
Ilnll"
,
llIt
111
.
lIIh
(I
) ' I , / I I ~ I I .
·
.
IL)..
n"IHI
..
'r,II'y
istill'
ilillislwl1!'oo.Ihlt,
,'
Olhlilitfll
1111
Ih,
'
IIttw.,,.ill
h
til
rlu'lllt'lh
"';
t'ul1vl'rsl'iv,
dUlllU
,
lh
'"
is
Iht'
hi);h
..
sl
'I"
,IIIIV
ftf
tliL'
in
·
dividual
ht.·'un~inh
In a
tlt'mtll
'r
;:
,,
'y:
Iwill"'f
011,
'
".,,; gl'l
ollonh
wilhuul
the
uther
.
lIulluencc
is
,,,,·n'ss.
uy
";
lIus
i
oo
its
tlumillanl
f
..
atun-
.
"lilt
at II",
same
lim"
this
''x
1".1
ins
ils
sw
',','
ss
,
Thl'
all
'
cil'lIls
"h
.. 1
t.
:
...
vi ......
,1
IIll'msdvl's
Ih
t
110
Ulll'
l'
ullid
rist..'
ill
Ihl'
stall'
urnmltt
m'
linl
n
..,lt1sililH:
ur
imp,"I.IUf"
,l
lld
)"unlllH'III
'"
without
umhlrit..'.tl
,.hili,y··
(XXJlVI).
"
No
Ulll'
in
Ihust'
IIUlt'S
illl,lillt..J
glt!al
power
wilhnul
some
elOlluenc~
or
utl",r
"
(lllVII)
.
So
ehMI"
t.'
uc
t.'
Sp.llklt'J
in
drrumslann'
s
Ih.l'
W"U'
III
fhangl'
ror
reasons
('asy
lusurmise
:
in
a WUrtt.
lold,
H'
lihcrlv
.
ttt'mller.lcy
ouslt.·tI
by
a
slruu);sl
ll'
wilh
wdl
·
t.'~IJhli
!'oo
h,',1
l,lWS,HId
.HlI
I
I)!
i.
I,ui.\I11t.',ld,·rship
.'
Sud.
is
Iht.'
PiHli,·
ul.lf
,'
,I
!oo
",.{
Ittl
.
",
("
CII
';ll.'
US
I'ompt.'y
in
his
Ihih'
nill
s
uiship
\y,,
!>
II",
fif
!oo
llu
nUllilw
Ihe
.
"
lIil~'r
'
lit'sl·lIlll.
;:IS
it
Wl'll'
,
put
reins
UpHIi
dtklul'Ut.."'"
l"l"VIIIII)
;
sud,
b
Iht.'
~'·I\I·rall,"v.
spdlt'tl nul
in
,ld,Iil
hy
T.h
'
itlls
:
"
W,
'
dn
nol
t'V"1I
J
know
uf
dn'lul'lIfl'
.1II11Ult;
Iht!'
Mact'<innians
and
Pl.'rsians
or
.lny
pt.
·
uplt·
who
Wt'(t'
s,
Ih
..
li,'d
willi
...
I,.blt,
gP\
'I'
lllIIlI'lIl"
(
11
1)
.
If
dl'IIHk
"
lat..'y
dis.lppl·.lrs.
il
II
is
rt.'I'I.I,,
'"
hy
.t
!'oolrull
h
h1wl'IIHnl'
ni
Ih.II
can
dispt.'I1~'·
wilh
puhlir
ddil
...
·r"liu"!"
..
Wh.ll
us
,'
i
.
,'h"'I''''IKt'!
"Whal
nt
'l'
,1
is
Ihl'h'
Ittr
lung
t..·)'prt';i!"iuns
III
"pilliull
III
Ihl
'
St..'UillL'
when
'],1'
lit
·",
IIIc'"
'Iuit-kly
(UIIU'
I"
.1n
,_grt"'lIu'nl!
Wh,,1
is
lillo'
nl'l
'J
for
IlIolUY
1 I l l ' l
"
in~~
lx"nu.'
Ilu'
1lt.·,IP"·
,
wlU'1I
II"
,
i~norilnl
m.l:-t~t·S
M"
lIul
,I""hlin~
.1
"t.lllt'r
"I'
pllhlil
'
1'"1,,'\'
1-1I1
III,'
,til,
'
1I1,'i,I","",
"'hll
I'i
II
..
1I'I'oI'
s
l?"
'\'
;
l·mph,lsi
.
,hl,I,',I),
hnlht'CllUtre.Hugh
I
we lu
...
·~rt
tl
IIlis st.II,'
ot
.lf1ai
...
!
Nol
if Wl'
"n'
In 1""lil'\t'
~I,II"IIIIIS
 
Ih,'
IIIII'IIt,,'
ullll
III
lilt'
dl
,
lltlhlW
whit
rsl.lhlisltl's Ihis
,ti,l~nll~is
.
Fur
lil""rl\'
.In,'
,il
'
mlk
·l.h·
\,
l!tn·.,"'''
flU'
 
TilE
O
R1ESOF
TilE
$YMIJUI.
('ileeanLi
wel
l-
heing
oft'vl'ry
imfivhJual
:
might
w~·
10
"'grd
thr.
r
L
of
cU
ecli\'c
rem
e
die
s
when
we
can
rcjoice
III
lilt'
Ol
h
s
t
~
nn
a.,scnce
I.I
rd
of
illness?
"
I(
!'ome
s
tate
should
I~
found
in
w
lK
.' 11(1
Ull(
~
<
I
wronr"
th
e
uralnr
would
Il\'
tllHw
H'
ssa
ry
:l
mollg
r.",lIh·ss
pt'op',',
as
a
doctor
is
amour,
healthy
ones
"
(U.I)
.
.,
T
he
clnqucnce
uf
(".'lrli,·r
times
\Y0l
~
1
00
"osHy:
II
~;
plll't
:
WOl~
II",
insec
urity
of
COld)
t:ili/.
C'I1
'S
lifl".
Ihis
1~1IIr,
tlU'
<I"'-
'f
l
rt'sult
(If
Ihe
dem
oc
raticins
titution
.
Thai
great
andrenowned
l'h"luen(c
is
th~
uffsprint;
uf
li
~e
~se,
which
fopls
(all
Iit~rly
...
_
wUhout
r
es
pe
cl,
wilholll
d'glllly,
violent,
I.,sil,
Mrnnanl.
which
d'M
's
nol
i1PJX'
:
'If
in
~dl
.
~ttvl
'
rn~
tI
I I
Ne
ither
Ihl'
"llltltrcncl'
tlf
IIH'
(.ri'rdu
wa
.
nf
suth
sacs.
....
h
hfl.
'a
t
ad\'.'nta~c
10
Ih
l'
stille
Ihat
Ihe
.I"UN
('~cn
pUI
up
WII
.their
law
s
nor
did
C
in
:
n.
lintl Ih.lt
Iwo
ur.lhm
c,
II
It
'
nuwn
was
.,t1cquale
co
mpt.'n
~a
lion
rur
hi
s
tc
nihlr
tlt'alh
.I
IC
IIT;lcitus
';q
ro
n d u
~
ion
:
"Si
nn'
nn
,
m\'
c
...
11
att
...
in
gu
'
at
r(,llnwn
and
gn
'
at
re
pc.lSl"
at
lin'
saltlt'linn'
,
1t
'll'.1(h
lUll'
l'!tioy
Ih
l.·
ltlt
'ss
ill~
or
his
o
wn
age
withoul
dl'lradillg
frum
Ih
e
tJ
lhcr
"
(XI
I)
.,
Let
usl
ea
ve
thi'
vallll'
j1utl\n1
rnl
.,id
e;Ihe
fa
c
ts
"'mal~'
10
""
analyzed
.
Thenowering
of
eloqu
ence
was
linked
10
a
cerl.on
formof
gove
rnment,
denult
:
rary;
with
Ih~
disal'Pl.'
o1
ran
:l
'
ur
,Il'nu,:,,-'racy,
cioquence
can
onlydecline
.
Or
even
di
s
appear?
rhe
,hclu"c
Ihall
aug
ht
h
ow
10
be
eloquent
musl
meel Ihe
same
.fal
c.Unless
,,10-
(I"cnn'
wrr
e
to
c
han~e
il~
mt·allinf~
-
al1t.t
rh~
I(l
.
n
(
wrr
t.'
10
(,~lan~l'
it
s
ub;
cd
.
11
Ihe
~
a"H'
hUH
'.
Ami.
dS
IlI
l'
((III
('
I
~
111'1
d"
....
d
111
I!,f'
Yl';U
Onl'
.
tilC
trum
it,
Ihal
is
what
mtl
st
hav
e.."
happ"'l1n'
;
th.)1
IS,
in
f.,
cl,
wh.l1
did
happt
·n
.
III
it
dl'rnocra(y.
s
pc
('ch
coul..l
he
effkaciOlls.In a
rnnn"rrhy
(10
IC.lp
quickly
aheOlt.l),
thi
s
is
I1H
lonf~
l'
r
pH
ss
ibll'
(I''''\,'t
I:
I
l
"'un~
s
In
in
s
lilutio,,
~.
not to
assl'll1bli,
's
l.
th
ei,teal
Iht'1~
n
C~
'
css'
H
Ilv
ch.1I1g
rs
.
the
b
es
l
sp
ecc
h
is
now
tht,
""l'
illll~
t.
·d
''''
111111/"1
.
"\"f,'rt'
1t
.
\.0
deb
a
lr
un
Ih
e
ca
ll
ses
or
lhc
det'
Jl'll(l.'
or
rlll'Ioric,
the
s;rml'
nUllc'Xu,'
t"l
(l
nllClrs
cl'
ntOlins
;tlHlllwr
t·xchanr.
<"
in
which
A ~
'
r
and
Mcss;lia
co
mp
.
,r
e
the
r("I
.
(ivl·
",l·rHs.
tlf
llil'
,,1,1
OlmJ
t.h
.l'
IIl'W
d~H.lucncl'
.
Ap
er,
dcf
l"
nd'n~
the
lath
'r,
tinll
s
in
it
(luahill's
Ihat
.
wer
e
ntll
notice
d
ilt
Ihe
time
ni
t·
lnqllt
·
l1l
·t'-
jlc;
·
in
s
iruflu
'
nl
:
'11'
11l-1
'~rl'c('~1
s
p("
cc
h
es
thai
itrc
·'hrilli.,nt
."
"s
triking."
""cOIulilul"
-an,1
hc
IS
IlIU
.:
on
t'l'
rlH
'
tl
with
tlwi.
dli'
"
H
itvIn
Ih,
<
11M
s
PI
'I·
t·
IU'
,
;.
ju
st
il
~
in
;,
ru
tl
dv
nllt~hud,',1
buil,ling,
th,
'
tv,III
i~
n'llainly
s
trung
,l1\d
gpjn.:
III
1
,
1
~
;
t
.
vt'l
it
j
.
ill,
ukqll.llt
'Iv
t
'tl
ll
';
llI'd
ami
III
&:
S
I·I.I
:
I'~UUK
ANU
.
MISERY
OF
RIIE1
'
ORIC
65
~I,inin~
.
I.
huw,
·'·t·r.
wan'
an
"",t,'r
,
i"~1
.l!"
ol ...
kh
anti
la!!>tl'flll
I"
',
hl
It'
a
h(ltl~dluhl
.
In
be
~hdll
'
fl"l.l
not
nnly
by
II,,:
klnJ
uf
h(lOll"
Ih
.1
k("
'
J.s
aw
.
y
Ihp
rain
and
wind
.
J:,ul
('v('n
one
Ihat
tJdi,~hts
Ihl'
"p'
;
,lIltl
I
wish him lu
I""
1'tI:"s('!":"t
',
1
nul
"nlv
of
flHUilllrt·
Ih.11
i
..
.
hll
"
I"
"II·
luI'
olllin.,ry
1'lIrl'u,,(·~.
Itut
~ultl
.tlhl
iewd
s
sllOuM
I
..
·
,ullunJ~hi~
"c.'''IIl~in~~
,
!'iill
thai
hi
'
111.,y
mor('
orkn
J~"I
plt.·01SUU
·
Irorn
hant.ilinf.t
and
J;
~zin~
upon
Ihem
.
lUll
;
111'1('
tltl
'
shifl
i'Wi'y
frum
inslrumcnlal
I11
l"
I,'
phnrs
lo""
.
rd
Iho~c
Ih.ll
e
vukc.'
urn.ll1l1'nll
eicern,
I~sl
of
Ihe
ancien
Is
.nd
firsl of Ihe
ml"'~rns,
""longs
amnnr, Ihe
1
1t"
·r
by
virille
of
ferlain
<IU.llitil'Sl'
hara
c
ll'rislic
of
his
Spt"("
Chl'S:
."
It
·
w.,
s
II",
fir!'ii'
(lm
. 
In ;l.,.,ly
.1
finish
10
••
spt-l'l'h,
th
e
first
une
ttl
folluw
il
principl~
of
seleclion
in
vucahulary
find
In
prnltlln'
sk
illful
,
IH.lIlJ~('ml
'
nl"
("XII)
.
TIlt'
illt'vil.lhll·
(
HIlS
l'II"l'lI
ft'
of Ihis
~lyli7.;'1liCln
is
Ihat
SIlC't."fh('s
may
~ro\V
mlln' an
ll
mun'
l"l'OlU
liful,
bUI
Ihey
.re
nil
moreapt
In fulfill
Iheir
(fnrnll'r)
funclion,
which
i~
ttl
nlUvill
n'.
tn
ad
.
,,
~
"r
...
·'s
inlnlunllu,
rl'lnrl!":
·'
W
\..
knuwhy
l'x
llt'rit'un'
II'ill
G
ln'
.1ntl
("(IIln'rll
fur
pn
'parOllioll ;lrl'
h.rmful"
(
.....
..
The
new
cilkllll""'" .liffers
fm",
Ih~
..
1tI
in
Ih.1
':s
ide.1
is
Ih"
inlrin~
ir
(1".11i1),
p,
,tiS«l~r;-;("
ralh('r
IhOln
i'~
Oll'lillld,'
(uc
s('rvin
h
an
~)(
h'rnal
plirpO
St',
As
i1
malll'r
ul
tad
,
thl'
l'tlrlil'r
rhetoricin
.
clu.fed
sever.lnnlin",
Ih.1Ctluld
have
se
rved
frn",
Ihe
begillning
u
Ihe
basi'for
Ihi'
1.lIer
concepl
ofeloqu
ence;
al
Ihe
lime
of Ihl'crisis
in
')uestion.
thl'
se
notions
tonk
on
mnre
preri
se
meaning
or
a
visihly
l'Xptlntll'll
rnll'.
Thi~
is
II",
GISl'
wilh
tilt'
h'fIU
It,."",;o.
o",nr"
which
bccnm~s.
aswe
shall
S~,
the
fure
(l'
the
n('wrh
e-
torical("(lifice:"TIlt'
prup
er
meanin,;
uf
orunrr
is
'furnish,''equip
.'
Dul
'a(lnr,,'
is
nnt
f.lr
tiff,
an,1
it
is in
Ihis
",·n~t·
Ihal
""Inl;"
is Ih
l.'
distinJ;lIishinK
fralllrt."
nf
eloqul'nn'
"
IAII"
'r
l
YUI1.
PI'
.
clxx-
dxxi)
.
We
1i1l,1
ex'lInp'l
'
~
ttf
t
...
lh
m('t'nil1J;~
n'
thl'
WU1l1
in
Cicl'
ro
.
whu
\'irillillly
l'ruhu,Ii,'s
Ihl.·
transition
.
As
it
h"PI"l·ns.
Ihl'St'
Iwu
m
ca
n
ingsalso
C
tlHC
;-;
rttll,'
Itt
Ihe
IWI'
l"llfll('
rliulls
or
rltd,n
i
c.
tlld
and
n
t'\\'
.
ill
.
!!
"1111
,
,,1
.
,,
.lIhl
orn.lOh'nl.lI.
~f"n'
rt
·m,uf..."tllt'
:--
1111
is
Ihl
'
f.I~l'
".
Iltl'
"'rill
"
'igurl
'"
("
lI,,
;"III.
(0"(""",,';"_
Ittrlfl",
lIS""').
Nul
Ih
Ol
I
its nw.lninn
vari('s,
fromTh
cu
phrasl .
~
(lr
DeIHt'
IIiu
s
I"
Quinlili,lII
.
E;
d,
linn
',
"Iigllfl'"isde.
finrd
hy
its
:coy
nlll1\'m
"r.'rm."
or
ltv"t'Pl1lp.lfis
un
wilh
f"
....
lttrt
.s
,lIld
htltl~
,
p"·
;I1I1,
·'
'':
;lI
...
1
ilS
till
'
hu,lv
I ..
·c
:--
....
lfilv
.hl"I"
S
I'u
:-.
lllre
s..11\\'a)'s
h"ld
s
ils,'
11
til
,.
n'rl,Iin
w.ly.
so
di
s
nlur
.
.Ihv,IYS
ha
s
i1
(('
II.lin
di
s
pll
~
ilitlll
.
".
\\
'
,lY
0'
Ilt
'
ill'
~
1'I1lI
S
('
in
'
ro
It'
k,
..
I"
"Ih
.