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Skeletal Muscles of a Toad/Frog

Skeletal Muscles of a Toad/Frog

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Published by Aurora

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Published by: Aurora on Oct 17, 2012
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06/03/2013

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SKELETAL MUSCLES –
consists of the origin and the insertion- taper at their ends into the tendons
TENDONS
 – tough white cords of connective tissue- serve to attach SM to bones or other M
ORIGIN
 – fixed end
INSERTION
- movable end
HEADS
 – end with more than one origin
SLIPS
– more than one point of insertion
BELLY
– fleshy middle portion
ACTION –
movement of effect caused by M*Each SM has a characteristic origin, insertionand action.*They are arranged in antagonisticpairs/groups that have opposing actions*Effective study: time, patience & gooddissection technique
General Classes of SM accdg. to Action:
1.
EXTENSORS
 –straighten or extend a part2.
FLEXORS
-bend one part toward another part3.
ADDUCTORS
- pull a part back toward theaxis of the body.4.
ABDUCTORS
- draw a part away from Axisof the Body
Skinning the Toad 
Ventral surface up
Cut along midventral line from anterior tip of  jaw to region of cloaca
Transverse cut thru skin
Loosen skin with blunt instrument
FASCIA
- thin white sheets of C.T. betweenthe skin and muscles
Subcutaneous lymph sacs-
large areaswhere skin is not attached to muscles andwhere colorless fluid collects in a living toad.
Turn skin inside out
Carefully free & separate M with blunt probe
Follow direction of muscle fibers in separating
In exposing deeper muscles, reflect coveringmuscle by cutting it thru its belly
THE PRINCIPAL MUSCLES 
A. Abdominal –
contract the body cavity
B. Pectoral or Chest-
inserted on ventral side of humerus- draw the arm toward the chest and expandabdominal activity
C. Lower jawD. Dorsal side of Head & TrunkE. Ventral surface of Thigh (upper leg)F. Dorsal side of ThighG. Shank (lower leg)
A. ABDOMINAL MUSCLES1. Rectus Abdominis
- occupy mid-ventral part- divided longitudinally by
LINEA ALBA
- Transversely by
INSCRIPTIONES TENDINAE2. External Oblique
- cover sides of the body from the ilium & insertson the Linea Alba
3. Internal Oblique/Transversus
- beneath external oblique- forms innermost layer of abdominal muscles
B. PECTORAL MUSCLES
- anterior to abdominal muscles- inserted on the ventral side of humerus
1. Pectoralis Epicoracoidea
- arises from coracoid & epicoracoid
2. Pectoralis Sternalis
- arises from sternum & xiphisternum
3. Cutaneous Pectoralis
- pocket-shaped M. covering Pectoralis sternalis
4. Pectoralis Abdominis
- arises from anterior half of Rectus abdominis
C. LOWER JAW MUSCLES1. Mylohyoid
- superficial M. originating from medial surface of mandible & inserted on the median raphe
2. Geniohyoid
- lateral, underlying muscle w/c originates from tip &border of lower jaw & inserts onto the processes &body of the hyoid & a more medial
Hyoglosus3. Genioglosus
 – anterior to the Hyoglosus
 4. Submentalis
 – small muscle at tip of lower jaw
5. Sternoradialis
 – lies posterior to Geniohyoid &partly covered by Mylohyoid.- originates from sternum & inserts on to radius.
6. Deltoid/Scapulo-humeralis
-postero-lateral to mylohyoid w/c originates fromscapula & inserts onto the humerus- it extends the arm.
D.
Dorsal side of Head & Trunk

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