sensitive to the effects of household wiring and connected appli-ances. All other study participants declared themselves to be notelectrosensitive.When taking their medical history, participants were also ques-tioned about subjective symptoms and chronic diseases at the startof the study and during its course; if overweight, this was also not-ed. In this study, overweight in adults is defined as a weight greaterthan the "body height in cm minus 100 plus 5 kg tolerance."Consistency checks for the parameter "overweight," however, indi-cate that
especially with regard to children
different criteriahave been applied during the taking of the medical history. Thesedata, therefore, can only serve as a reference point. They are listedhere anyhow since they can provide suggestions for further studies.
Fig. 1: Classification of participants based on average or peak value of theGSM power density level
rgna stuy n erman: , ) mwet-ezn-esescat ): -.
All atopic disorders such as:
Hay fever, neurodermatitis, allergies, asthma, eczema are re-ferred to as "chronic disorders;" as well as
All chronic inflammations such as interleukin- or COX-2-mediated problems;
All autoimmune diseases such as rheumatism, multiple sclerosis(MS);
All chronic metabolic disorders such as diabetes, liver diseases,intestinal diseases, kidney diseases.Out of the 16 chronically affected participants 12 had allergies.It was also asked whether there were DECT, Wi-Fi, or Bluetooth de-vices in the house or apartment during the study period from lateJanuary 2004 until July 2005. Also included were those devices pre-sent only for part of the study period, but not those turned off atnight.
Exposure Level Measurements
For the most part, Rimbach municipality is located at one side of anarrow V-shaped valley. The cell phone base station is situated al-most right across from the village center on the other side. RF radi-ation levels were measured at the outside of the residences of allstudy participants, wherever possible with direct line of sight of thetransmitter. Because the municipality is located on a slope, greatdifferences were noted inside homes
depending on whether ornot a line of sight to the transmitter existed. In three cases, it waspossible to measure the exposure levels at the head end of the bed.In these cases, the peak value of the power density was lower by afactor of 3.5 to 14 compared to measurements in front of the housewith direct line of sight to the transmitter. The exact location of DECT, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth base stations (if present) as well as pos-sible occupational exposures, etc. were not determined by mostparticipants.At first, the measurements were taken with a broadband RF meterHF38B of Gigahertz Solutions, for which the manufacturer guaran-tees an error margin of max. ±6 dB (+ 7 decimal places; but thiserror can be mostly eliminated by selecting the appropriate meas-urement range). However, an inspection revealed that the errormargin was less than ±3 dB. In addition, the broadband RF meterHF59B (±3 dB, ±5 decimal places) was used at several points. Withthis RF meter, relevant frequencies can be analyzed with variablefilters, the ELF modulation frequencies via fast Fourier analysis.By using broadband RF meters, the testing effort and expense arereduced compared to spectrum analyzers. Thus, it was possible totake measurements at a greater number of points, and as a result, itwas easier to determine the maxima and minima of the power den-sity levels. Furthermore, the accuracy of high-quality broadband RFmeters is similar to that of spectrum analyzers.In this study, only cell phone signals are considered: not DECT, Wi-Fi, or Bluetooth devices inside homes or emissions from broadcastor TV stations at
, a mountain above Rimbach. For themost part, the emissions from the latter transmitters remained sta-ble during the study period, whereas the focus of this study is onchanges in exposure levels. For almost all sample measurements,the portion of the exposure due to the transmitter at
was at maximum 35 µW/m
(peak value). It was higher in the resi-dences of only two study participants: 270 µW/m
(average) or 320µW/m
(peak), respectively. At these residences, the GSM exposurewas approximately 10 µW/m
.For the assessment, the peak values of the signals are used because,in the case of GSM radiation, they are less dependent on the usagelevel than average values. The peak value of the power density forall study participants from Rimbach was on average 76.9 µW/m
(Tab. 1).In Figure 1 the exposure of the participants is given as power densi-ty levels in increments of 30 µW/m
Classification of Participant Group andExposure Levels
Sixty persons participated in the study; their age distribution isshown in Figure 2 according to year groups. In order to capture theeffect of the cell phone base station, other environmental factorsmust be excluded as much as possible. It is vitally important to en-sure that no major differences between high-exposure and low-exposure persons influenced the results.