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Pro-Poor Interventions in Irrigated Agriculture: PRC Experience

Pro-Poor Interventions in Irrigated Agriculture: PRC Experience

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Pro-poor Interventions in Irrigated Agriculture
Issues, Options and Proposed Actions
ChinaChina
Reforms have cut China's rural povertydramatically. Key contributions have been made byeffective agricultural reforms, overall equity in landand water distribution, decoupled land and water rights,relatively greater investments in irrigation in downstreamareas, and the introduction of financial-incentive-basedirrigation management. But, in the face of increasing watershortages, reforms need to be implemented more widely and moreeffectively, to enable more villages to move towards farmer-participatory orcontract-based management of irrigation.
This report was prepared by consultants for the Asian Development Bank. The findings, interpretations,and conclusions expressed in it do not necessarily represent the views of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) or those of its member governments. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included inthis report and accepts no responsibility for any consequences of their use.
 
Pro-poor Interventions in IrrigatedAgriculture in China:
Issues, Options and Proposed Actions
Introduction
Reducing poverty is a major development goal. But to achieve this, we need to answer some basic questions. Whatcontribution does irrigated agriculture make to reducing poverty? How does the performance of irrigation systems impactupon poor men and women? Have recent irrigation reforms improved access to water and lifted the poor out of poverty?And, what practical actions will give the best return on investment in terms of alleviating poverty?This briefing answers those questions in the context of China. It is one of a series produced by the project ‘Pro-poorIntervention Strategies in Irrigated Agriculture in Asia’,
 
which took a holistic approach to understanding poverty, in orderto identify practical, pro-poor interventions. In-depth, multidisciplinary studies were carried out in each of six Asiancountries, and primary data was collected from 5,408 households in 26 irrigation systems using a standard set of methods,to provide new insights that are valuable contributions to the fight against poverty.
poverty alleviation. The proportion of cultivated areaunder irrigation increased from 18% in 1952 to morethan 50% by the late 1990s. Generally, provinces with ahigh share of irrigated areas have a relatively lowincidence of poverty—suggesting the importance of irrigation in poverty reduction. But, opportunities forirrigating new areas are limited—irrigation systemshave already been developed in most suitable areas.Water shortages are a key problem. Demand forwater is rising fast, especially from rapidly growingindustry and expanding urban populations. So, theamount available for agriculture is dropping—whichwill probably affect food production. The country haslimited water resources per capita, and exploiting newresources is often prohibitively expensive. Plus, becausesurface-water irrigation systems are falling intodisrepair, and farmers have no incentive to use watercarefully, agricultural water use is often inefficient. So,only around 40% of the surface water allocated toagriculture is used efficiently for crop production.To address this, China’s policymakers havepromoted water-management reforms since the early1980s. Participatory irrigation management—throughfarmer ‘water user associations’ (WUAs)—has beendeveloped as a key way of improving irrigationmanagement. Now, water supply corporations (WSCs)operate and maintain reservoirs and branch canals,selling water to WUAs on demand, at prices designedto recover capital and operating costs. Water is chargedfor according to a measured volume, which encourages
Overview:Context and Country-specific Issues
China has made remarkable progress in reducingpoverty. From 1978 to 2000, more than 200 million ruralpoor were lifted out of poverty. Plus, the incidence of rural poverty dropped dramatically from 30.7% to 3.4%.Generally, this is attributed to dramatic ruralgrowth resulting from broad-based economic reforms.These helped the country shift from a centrally plannedto a more market-oriented economy, quadrupling GDPafter 1978. Reforms in the agricultural sector—whichboomed—became the cornerstone of reformsthroughout the economy.Most important was the introduction of thehousehold responsibility’ system. This assignedcollective land, formerly held by communes, tohouseholds on long leases. Households could thendecide what they grew, and whether to keep theirproduce or sell it for profit. Equitable redistribution of land, based on family size, boosted productivity andagricultural performance. So, rural incomes jumpedfrom 220 yuan per year in 1978 to 964 yuan per year in1997. But, to be fair, land distribution was based onland quantity, quality and location—leading to verysmall holdings per family (often less than half a hectarein total), scattered over 5-6 plots.Investments in rural infrastructure, includingirrigation, also contributed significantly to growth and
1
August, 2004
 
Ningxia ProvinceHenan ProvinceIrrigation Districts studiedWeining (WID-NP)Peoples Victory (PID-HP)Qingtongxia (QID-NP)Liuyuankou (LID-HP).Per capita annual income (yuan)*1,7241,984Poverty rate: percentage of people below78national poverty line (52.1 yuan/month)Poverty rate: percentage of people below1014World Bank poverty line (73.2 yuan/month)Location in YRBUpper reachesLower reachesWater abundanceHighLowWater use per hectare (cubic meters)24,5003,800Percentage of cultivated area4866that is irrigatedSource of irrigation waterSurface waterSurface and ground waterAnnual rainfall (mm)200630Main crops grownWheat, maize, riceWheat, maize, riceAmount of wheat produced per cubic0.8 kg (US$0.09)in WID-N2.1 kg (US$0.25)in LID-Hmeter of water (and value)Water price (yuan per cubic meter)0.0120.04Recovery rate of operations and maintenance costs (%)6123
*Incomes were lower than the national average—by 25% and 12% in Ningxia and Henan, respectively.The irrigation districts’ (IDs) command areas range from 31,000 hectares (LID-HP in Henan) to 304,000 hectares (QID-NP in Ningxia). All four IDs sufferageing infrastructure, outdated water-delivery technology, and chronic funding shortages for canal maintenance. The climate is dry, and seasonallyvariable in both provinces (with 90% of rain falling in summer), so irrigation is important. Farm sizes are small: 0.45-1.03 hectares per family.
Box 1. Scope and location of studies.
National survey
To assess the impacts of irrigation on poverty, primary datawas collected from an almost nationally representativesample of 60 villages in 6 provinces of rural China (Hebei,Liaoning, Shaanxi, Zhejiang, Hubei, and Sichuan).
In-depth studies: Yellow river basin (YRB)
To assess irrigation systems’ performance and theimplications of irrigation management reforms, keystakeholders were interviewed, and primary household-level data was collected using a comprehensive, multi-topicquestionnaire.
WUA farmers to be less wasteful. WUAs collect watercharges from their members, and are legallyresponsible for maintenance and water delivery at thefarm level. Around 250 WUAs and 17 WSCs have beenestablished in eight provinces.Given the importance of irrigated agriculture inpoverty reduction, and the urgent need for efficientwater use, IWMI and the Center for ChineseAgricultural Policy (Beijing) critically assessedirrigation system performance, poverty, and relevantinstitutions. In-depth studies were made of four large-scale irrigation systems in two provinces, includinginterviews with 231 households in 2001-2002 (see Box1 and Figure 1). This, coupled with a national survey(1,199 households in 6 provinces), helped pinpointpolicy actions that could make the country’s irrigationsystems more efficient and more pro-poor. Poverty wasmeasured using the government’s poverty line of 52.1yuan
1
per capita per monthequivalent to US$0.90day in purchasing power parity terms.
1
US$1 = 8.3 yuan
Table 1.
Characteristics of areas studied relevant to pro-poor interventions.
Pro Poor Country Brief 
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