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Active Low-pass Filter Design

Active Low-pass Filter Design

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active low pass filter design
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Published by: sonia_eloued on Jan 22, 2009
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05/10/2014

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Application Report 
SLOA049B - September 2002 
1
Active Low-Pass Filter Design 
Jim KarkiAAP Precision Analo
ABSTRACT
This report focuses on active low-pass filter design using operational amplifiers. Low-passfilters are commonly used to implement antialias filters in data-acquisition systems. Designof second-order filters is the main topic of consideration.Filter tables are developed to simplify circuit design based on the idea of cascading lower-order stages to realize higher-order filters. The tables contain scaling factors for the cornerfrequency and the required Q of each of the stages for the particular filter being designed.This enables the designer to go straight to the calculations of the circuit-component valuesrequired.To illustrate an actual circuit implementation, six circuits, separated into three types of filters(Bessel, Butterworth, and Chebyshev) and two filter configurations (Sallen-Key and MFB),are built using a TLV2772 operational amplifier. Lab test data presented shows theirperformance. Limiting factors in the high-frequency performance of the filters are alsoexamined.
Contents1Introduction2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Filter Characteristics3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Second-Order Low-Pass Filter Standard Form3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Math Review4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Examples4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1Second-Order Low-Pass Butterworth Filter5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.2Second-Order Low-Pass Bessel Filter5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.3Second-Order Low-Pass Chebyshev Filter With 3-dB Ripple5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6Low-Pass Sallen-Key Architecture6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Low-Pass Multiple-Feedback (MFB) Architecture7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Cascading Filter Stages8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Filter Tables8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Example Circuit Test Results11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Nonideal Circuit Operation14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1Nonideal Circuit Operation Sallen-Key14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.2Nonideal Circuit Operation MFB16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12Comments About Component Selection17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Conclusion17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix AFilter-Design Specifications19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
SLOA049B 
2
Active Low-Pass Filter Design 
Appendix BHigher-Order Filters21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures
1Low-Pass Sallen-Key Architecture6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Low-Pass MFB Architecture7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Building Even-Order Filters by Cascading Second-Order Stages8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Building Odd-Order Filters by Cascading Second-Order Stages and Adding a Single Real Pole8. . .5Sallen-Key Circuit and Component Values
 – 
fc = 1 kHz11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6MFB Circuit and Component Values
 – 
fc = 1 kHz11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Second-Order Butterworth Filter Frequency Response12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Second-Order Bessel Filter Frequency Response12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Second-Order 3-dB Chebyshev Filter Frequency Response13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Second-Order Butterworth, Bessel, and 3-dB Chebyshev Filter Frequency Response13. . . . . . . . . .11Transient Response of the Three Filters14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Second-Order Low-Pass Sallen-Key High-Frequency Model14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Sallen-Key Butterworth Filter With RC Added in Series With the Output15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Second-Order Low-Pass MFB High-Frequency Model16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15MFB Butterworth Filter With RC Added in Series With the Output16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B
 – 
1Fifth-Order Low-Pass Filter Topology Cascading Two Sallen-Key Stages and an RC22. . . . . . . .B
 – 
2Sixth-Order Low-Pass Filter Topology Cascading Three MFB Stages23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Tables
1Butterworth Filter Table9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Bessel Filter Table9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31-dB Chebyshev Filter Table10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43-dB Chebyshev Filter Table10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Summary of Filter Type Trade-Offs18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Summary of Architecture Trade-Offs18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1Introduction
There are many books that provide information on popular filter types like the Butterworth,Bessel, and Chebyshev filters, just to name a few. This paper will examine how to implementthese three types of filters.We will examine the mathematics used to transform standard filter-table data into the transferfunctions required to build filter circuits. Using the same method, filter tables are developed thatenable the designer to go straight to the calculation of the required circuit-component values.Actual filter implementation is shown for two circuit topologies: the Sallen-Key and the MultipleFeedback (MFB). The Sallen-Key circuit is sometimes referred to as a voltage-controlled voltagesource, or VCVS, from a popular type of analysis used.It is common practice to refer to a circuit as a Butterworth filter or a Bessel filter because itstransfer function has the same coefficients as the Butterworth or the Bessel polynomial. It is alsocommon practice to refer to the MFB or Sallen-Key circuits as filters. The difference is that theButterworth filter defines a transfer function that can be realized by many different circuittopologies (both active and passive), while the MFB or Sallen-Key circuit defines an architectureor a circuit topology that can be used to realize various second-order transfer functions.
 
SLOA049B 
3
Active Low-Pass Filter Design 
The choice of circuit topology depends on performance requirements. The MFB is generallypreferred because it has better sensitivity to component variations and better high-frequencybehavior. The unity-gain Sallen-Key inherently has the best gain accuracy because its gain isnot dependent on component values.
2Filter Characteristics
If an ideal low-pass filter existed, it would completely eliminate signals above the cutofffrequency, and perfectly pass signals below the cutoff frequency. In real filters, various trade-offsare made to get optimum performance for a given application.
Butterworth
filters are termed maximally-flat-magnitude-response filters, optimized for gainflatness in the pass-band. the attenuation is
 – 
3 dB at the cutoff frequency. Above the cutofffrequency the attenuation is
 – 
20 dB/decade/order. The transient response of a Butterworth filterto a pulse input shows moderate overshoot and ringing.
Bessel
filters are optimized for maximally-flat time delay (or constant-group delay). This meansthat they have linear phase response and excellent transient response to a pulse input. Thiscomes at the expense of flatness in the pass-band and rate of rolloff. The cutoff frequency isdefined as the
 – 
3-dB point.
Chebyshev
filters are designed to have ripple in the pass-band, but steeper rolloff after thecutoff frequency. Cutoff frequency is defined as the frequency at which the response falls belowthe ripple band. For a given filter order, a steeper cutoff can be achieved by allowing morepass-band ripple. The transient response of a Chebyshev filter to a pulse input shows moreovershoot and ringing than a Butterworth filter.
3Second-Order Low-Pass Filter
 –
Standard Form
The transfer function H
LP
of a second-order low-pass filter can be express as a function offrequency (f) as shown in Equation 1. We shall use this as our standard form.H
LP
(f)
+
K
 
fFSF
 
fc
 
2
1Q jfFSF
 
fc
1
Equation 1. Second-Order Low-Pass Filter
 –
Standard Form
In this equation, f is the frequency variable, fc is the cutoff frequency, FSF is the frequencyscaling factor, and Q is the quality factor. Equation 1 has three regions of operation: belowcutoff, in the area of cutoff, and above cutoff. For each area Equation 1 reduces to:
f<<fc
H
LP
(f)
K
 – 
the circuit passes signals multiplied by the gain factor K.
ffc
FSF
å 
H
LP
(f)
+
 jKQ
 – 
signals are phase-shifted 90
°
and modified by the Q factor.
f>>fc
H
LP
(f)
 
 – 
K
 
FSF
 
fcf
 
2
 – 
signals are phase-shifted 180
°
and attenuated by thesquare of the frequency ratio.With attenuation at frequencies above fc increasing by a power of 2, the last formula describes asecond-order low-pass filter.

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