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Dosuna_2012_Ancient Macedonian as a Greek Dialect_A Critical Survey on Recent Work

Dosuna_2012_Ancient Macedonian as a Greek Dialect_A Critical Survey on Recent Work

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Published by Makedonas Akritas
The question of whether the language of ancient Macedonians was a Greek dialect or a different language has attracted considerable attention during the past three decades. Until recently, the idea that Ancient Macedonian was a separate Indo-European language more or less closely related to Greek, possibly a member of the Thraco-Phrygian branch (henceforth, the Thraco-Phrygian Hypothesis), dominated the academic scene, especially outside Greece.
But in the last few years, this idea has increasingly receded to the persuasion that Macedonians spoke a Greek dialect (henceforth, the Greek Hypothesis), even though as early as the 4th century BC the Macedonian administration used in writing first Attic and then the Attic-Ionic koine, virtually to the complete exclusion of the vernacular.

SOURCE: Center of the Greek Language, Ancient Macedon, 2012
The question of whether the language of ancient Macedonians was a Greek dialect or a different language has attracted considerable attention during the past three decades. Until recently, the idea that Ancient Macedonian was a separate Indo-European language more or less closely related to Greek, possibly a member of the Thraco-Phrygian branch (henceforth, the Thraco-Phrygian Hypothesis), dominated the academic scene, especially outside Greece.
But in the last few years, this idea has increasingly receded to the persuasion that Macedonians spoke a Greek dialect (henceforth, the Greek Hypothesis), even though as early as the 4th century BC the Macedonian administration used in writing first Attic and then the Attic-Ionic koine, virtually to the complete exclusion of the vernacular.

SOURCE: Center of the Greek Language, Ancient Macedon, 2012

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Published by: Makedonas Akritas on Oct 20, 2012
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
1Introduction
The questi f whether the lguge f ciet Mcedis ws  Greek di
-
lect r  dieret lguge hs ttrcted csiderble tteti durig thepst three decdes. Util recetly, the ide tht Aciet Mcedi ws seprte Id�Eurpe lguge re r less clsely relted t Greek, pssi
-
bly  eber f the Thrc�Phrygi brch (hecefrth, the Thrc�Phry
-
gi ypthesis), dited the cdeic scee, especilly utside Greece.But i the lst few yers, this ide hs icresigly receded t the persu
-
si tht Mcedis spke  Greek dilect (hecefrth, the Greek ypth
-
esis), eve thugh s erly s the 4th cetury BC the Mcedi diistr
-
ti used i writig rst Attic d the the Attic�Iic kie, virtully t thecplete exclusi f the verculr (see Pytu 2007 fr  cveietsurvey).¹Severl fcts hve bee pited ut s evidece i supprt f the Greekypthesis:
a
Se ciet surces stte tht the Mcedis were Greek d spke dilect siilr t tht f Aetli d Epirus.
b
Mst f the Mcedi glsses trsitted by esychius re iter
-
pretble s Greek wrds with se distictive phetic peculirities:e.g., ἀδ· ορανός. Μακεδόνες (AGk αθήρ), δώραξ· σπλὴν ὑπὸ Μακε�Μακε
-
δόνων (AGk θώραξ ‘truk, chest’), δανῶν· κακοποιῶν. κτείνων (ps�(AGk θώραξ ‘truk, chest’), δανῶν· κακοποιῶν. κτείνων (ps
-
sibly *θανόω = AGk θανατόω; cf. Mced. δάνος fr AGk θάνατος c
-
crdig t Plutrch,
Moralia
2.22c), γόλα (γόδα s.)· ἔντερα (pssibly fr γολά = Att. χολή ‘gll’, ‘gll bldder’, . χολάδες ‘guts’).²
The verwhelig jrity f the Mcedis bre Greek es:Φίλιππος, Ἀλέξανδρος, Περδίκκας, Ἀμύντας, etc.
d
A few d, fr the st prt, shrt iscriptis ttest t  vriety f Greek clse t Dric. The lgest texts re the fus curse tblet f Pell (hecefrth, a; see Appedix, p. 287), c. 380–350 BC (
SEG
 43.434; cf. Vutirs 1993, 1996, 1998; Dubis 1995) d  csultti tthe rcle f Zeus t Dd (hecefrth, ooa) which ight be f Mcedi rigi (see 5.2 belw).
e
Lst but t lest, A Pytu d Miltides tzpuls hvepistkigly serched the Mcedi iscriptis writte i Attic ri the Attic�Iic kie d hve idetied severl fetures tht theyscribe t  Mcedi substrte.I spite f this, the Greek ypthesis hs t yet chieved uiversl recg
-
iti. T eti just se recet disbelievers, Clvi (2007, 2010) des teve brig up the issue,³ Adrds (2005, 36–7) expresses se reservtis 
Ancient Macedonian asa Greek dialect:A critical surveyon recent work
1
 
Fr lck f spce, epigrphicl refereceswill here be kept t  iiu (fr re ex
-
ples I refer t Pytu’s d tzpuls’ pub
-
lictis). I hve t thk Alcrc Als Déizfr se iterestig suggestis.
2
 
I se cses the glsses re stdrdGreek wrds tht hd  specil eig r, frse res, were regrded s typiclly Mced
-
i (Sw 2006, 117–18): cf. βηματίζει· τὸ τοῖςποσὶ μετρεῖν, ἀργιόπους (pssibly fr ἀργίπουςἀετός, r θούριδες· νύμφαι, Μοσαι.
3
 
Clvi (1999, 279) siply sttes tht “urigrce f the liguistic situti i Mcedreis lst cplete”.
Julián Méndez Dosuna
 
134
 Juli
á
n
éndez Dosuna
the prble d suspeds judgeet util further ifrti is vilblet us, rrcks (2010, 79 with 122, f. 1) hesittes betwee “ highly berrtGreek dilect r  Id�Eurpe dilect very clsely relted t Greek”.I this pper I ited t er  criticl pprisl f the liguistic evidecetht hs bee prduced i recet yers i fvr f d gist the Greek y
-
pthesis.
2The P   plosive consonants in Macedonian
At the rt f the Mcedi questi lies the prble f the utces i(geerl) Greek d i Mcedi f the IE csts trditilly rec
-
structed s viced spirted stps (*
bʰ 
, *
dʰ 
, *
 gʰ 
).⁴ Uctrversilly, PIE *
bʰ 
,
*
dʰ 
, *
 gʰ 
evlved i Greek it viceless spirtes /pʰ tʰ kʰ/ (writte Φ, Θ, Χ).Accrdig t the prpets f the Thrc�Phrygi ypthesis, i Mced
-
i, like i Thrc�Phrygi d i y ther IE brches, *
bʰ 
, *
dʰ 
, *
 gʰ 
be
-
ce viced stps /b d g/ (writte Β, Δ, Γ). Thus, Greek devicig d Mc
-
edi despirti were believed t ccut fr the ctrst betwee, e.g.,Att. Φερενίκη vs. Mced. Βερενίκα (Atticized s Βερενίκη) (< PIE *
bʰer-
), Att.Φάλακρος vs. Mced. Βάλακρος (Att. φαλακρός ‘bld’), Att. Φυλομάχη vs.Mced. Βουλομάγα (φῡλο� < PIE *
bʰh₂u-sl-
)⁵ r the bve�etied θώραξvs. Mced. δώραξ.
I ll prbbility, the Thrc�Phrygi ypthesis is just  isccepti.My strtig pit will be tzpuls’ (2007) essy,⁶ which is the st thr
-
ughly detiled d develped presetti f the Greek ypthesis t dte.This utstdig ctributi is the culiti f lst tw decdes f u
-
iterrupted reserch  Mcedi cstis (see tzpuls 1987,1998, 1999), d builds  previus prpsls by tw priet Greek schl
-
rs, ely tzidkis (1896, 1911) d Bbiitis (1992, 1992b). tzpu
-
ls rgues tht  �Greek despirti f PIE *
bʰ 
, *
dʰ 
, *
 gʰ 
> /b d g/ des tccut stisfctrily fr the dierece betwee istre Greek d Mc
-
edi, sice iscriptil evidece prves beyd dubt tht the PIE plistps *
 p
, *
, *
k
ls uderwet vicig: cf. e.g., Ἄρτεμις Διγαία ἐν Βλαγάνοις (=Ἄρτεμις Δικαία ἐν Βλαχάνοις),⁷ Βάλαγρος besides freetied Βάλακρος(Att. Φάλακρος), Βορδῖνος (AGk Πορτῖνος),⁸ Δρεβέλαος (Att. Τρεφέλεως),⁹ etc.
The cstis f Mcedi vis�à�vis istre Greek is best ex
-
plied s resultig fr  ier�Greek
Lautverschiebung
tht c be repre
-
seted s fllws:¹⁰The dte f the Mcedi vicig is ucerti, but there is evidece f it i iscriptis dted t the 5th d 4th ceturies BC: cf. freetiedΒορδῖνος, Βερεννώ (
SEG
35.775, Aege, c. 350 BC) d δαπῑνά pssibly frταπεινά i a, l. 6 (Dubis 1995, 195–6). The fllwig few rerks cple�–6). The fllwig few rerks cple�6). The fllwig few rerks cple
-
et tzpuls’ (2007) views.Ctrry t the prevlet pii, I  persuded tht, i the st fvr
-
ble ctexts, the spirtizti f the spirtes d viced stps ws lredyuder wy i the clssicl perid i se, if t st f the ciet Greekdilects: i.e., λάθος, τόδε were pruced with frictives ([láθs], [tóðe]) s
4
 
The ctrversil questi f whether thePIE
mediae
were ctully viced spirtes r teed t ccer us here.
5
 
Ne f  Mcedi w wh deseverl erigs t Dels (
IG
11.2.161Β.102, 186.5,etc., c. 278 BC).
6
 
tzpuls preseted his essy s  p
-
per i the 4th Cferece  Aciet Greek Di
-
lectlgy held i Berli i Septeber 2001 dsubitted it fr publicti erly i 2002, butthe prceedigs f the cferece were t pub
-
lished util 2007.
7
 
Cf. ἐν Βλαγάνοις Ἀρτέμιδι Δειγαίᾳ (
SEG
 37.590, 2–3, Aege, 189 AD). tzpuls re
-
ltes the plce e *Βλάγανα d the epithetΒλαγανῖτις t the glss βλαχάν· ὁ βάτραχος (e
-
sychius). Curiusly eugh, Plutrch (
Moralia
 292e 4–8 [=
Quaestiones Graecae
]), the rst cietsurce reprtig  the Mcedi feture,sees t iply tht, ulike Delphis, Mced
-
is did t vice /p/ (d the ther vicelessstps): ο γὰρ ἀντὶ το φ τῷ β χρῶνται Δελφοί,καθάπερ Μακεδόνες “Βίλιππον” καὶ “βαλακρόν”καὶ “Βερονίκην” λέγοντες, ἀλλ’ ἀντὶ το π· καὶ γὰρ τὸ πατεῖν “βατεῖν” καὶ τὸ πικρὸν “βικρὸν”ἐπιεικῶς καλοσιν (“Fr Delphis d t useΒ fr Φ (s Mcedis d whe they syΒίλιππος, βαλακρός d Βερονίκη [fr Φίλιππος,Φάλακρος d Φερονίκη]), but fr Π; fr they[i.e., Delphis] turlly pruce πατεῖν‘tred’ s βατεῖν d πικρός ‘bitter’ s βικρός”).
8
 
This PN i  Athei trety with Perdic
-
cs II f Mcedi d Arrhbeus f Lyces
-
te (
IG
3.89.72, 423/2 BC?) is  hpx. The frΠορτῖνος ccurs i Thessly.
9
 
Cf. Δρεβελάου (
SEG
55.600.2, Dliche[rther Thessly], 3rd c. BC).
10
 
It is dicult t scerti whether /pʰ/d /b/ spirtized t bilbil [φ] d [β] revlved e step further it lbidetl [f] d[v]. Fr cveiece, I use [f] d [v] ll thrugh
-
ut this pper. Fr siilr ress, it reis u
-
certi whether the utce f the spirtiz
-
ti f /d/ ws deti�lvelr like i Spish riterdetl like i Mder Greek.
P Ι ΕGeneral GreekMacedonian
*p,*t, *k*bh, *dh, *gh*b, *d, *g/p t k//ph th
 
kh/ (/f θ x/ in some dialects)/b d g/ (~ [β ð γ] in some contexts)(Π Τ Κ)(Φ Θ Χ)(Β Δ Γ)>>>/p t k/ (Π Τ Κ) ~ [b d g] (Β Δ Γ)/f θ x/ (Φ Θ Χ) ~ [v ð γ] (Β Δ Γ)/b d g/ (Β Δ Γ) ~ [v ð γ] (Β Δ Γ)
 

 Ancient Macedonian as a Greek dialect: A critical survey on recent work
135135
i Mder Greek (fr the erly spirtizti f /b d g/ i Aciet Greek, cf.Médez Dsu 1991–3; 2009, 82–4).¹¹ Mcedi ws i this respect  ex�–3; 2009, 82–4).¹¹ Mcedi ws i this respect  ex�3; 2009, 82–4).¹¹ Mcedi ws i this respect  ex�–4).¹¹ Mcedi ws i this respect  ex�4).¹¹ Mcedi ws i this respect  ex
-
cepti t  geerl tred i the phetic evluti f Aciet Greek.
The Greek ypthesis is typlgiclly cget.¹² Adittedly, the cse f Mcedi is exceptil s fr s the histry f Greek cstis is c
-
cered, where we see tht vicig is ced t pstsl psiti: cf. AGkπέντε [péte] > MGk ['pe()de]. But vicig f stps d frictives i iters
-
rt ctexts (V__V, R__V, V__R) is  widespred ssiiltry pheei the lguges f the wrld. A illustrtive exple is the cse f Lti stpsi Spish: cf. AGk κατά > VLt.
cata
> ['kd] > MSp.
cada
['kð] ‘every’; Lt.
 patre(m)
> ['pdɾe] > MSp.
 padre
['pðɾe] ‘fther’; AGk Στέφανος > Lt.
Stepha
-
nus
(
 ph
= [f]) > MSp.
Esteban
[es'teβ] ‘Stephe’, AGk ῥάφανος > Lt.
raphanus
 > MSp.
rábano
['rβ] ‘rdish’, Lt.
defensa(m)
> Sp. (dil.)
devesa
‘hcied’(stdrd
dehesa
), Lt.
trifoliu(m)
> Sp.
trébol
['tɾeβl] ‘clver’.¹³ By ctrst, stpsreied viceless i wrd�iitil psiti (Lt.
 patrem
> Sp.
 padre
) d fter cst:
 partem
>
 parte
‘prt’,
altum
>
alto
‘high’,
 symphonia
(VLt. *
 sumponia
)> Sp.
 zampoña
‘rustic pipe, syrix’, Gllici
 zanfoña
‘hurdy�gurdy’. Crucilly, u
-
like Mder Greek /v ð γ/, which re full�edged phees (e.g., δίνω /'ði/ ‘Igive’ vs. ντύνω /'di/ ‘I dress’), Mder Spish frictive (r pprxit) [β ð γ] re ere ctext�depedet llphes f /b d g/, e.g.,
dios
['djs] ‘gd’ fter puse,
el dios
[el'djs] ‘the gd’ r
un dios
['u'djs] ‘ gd’ but
la diosa
[l'ðjs]‘the gddess’,
a Dios
['ðjs] ‘t Gd’ d
 por Dios
[pɾ'ðjs] ‘by Gd’.¹⁴A secd wve f vicig is curretly spredig crss vrius derSpish dilects. The chges dcueted i the Spish spke i Cry Is
-
lds y shed se light  Aciet Mcedi. I Cri Spish vic
-
ig ects stps d ricte [t∫]:
 pata
['pd] ‘leg (f  il)’,
muchacho
 [u'dʒdʒ] ‘by’ (stdrd ['pt], [u't∫t∫]). The prcess is ctext�de
-
pedet, thus /p/ i
 pata
is viceless fter  puse but viced fter  vwel isdhi, e.g.,
la pata
[l'bd]. Spirtizti hs begu t spred t the ut
-
ces f the vicig f /p t k/ s tht
la pata
[l'bd] r [l'βð] ‘the leg’ d
labata
[l'βd] r [l'βð] ‘the rbe’ y be hphus with
lavada
[l'βð]‘wshed (fe.)’ (stdrd [l'pt], [l'βt], [l'βð] respectively).¹⁵
The iscriptil dt suggest tht vicig i Aciet Mcedi yhve perted very uch i  siilr wy. O the ther hd,  lguge withviced bstruets but  viceless cuterprts wuld be  typlgicl rrity.Fr this res, ctext�free geerl vicig /p t k/ > /b d g/, /f θ x/ > /v ð γ/i Mcedi is ulikely. Like i Cri Spish, vicig is budtly t
-
tested i wrd�iitil psiti. Argubly, vicig f wrd�iitil cstsresulted fr the geerlizti f  sdhi�vrit,¹⁶ e.g., ἁ Φερενίκα, ὁTρεβέλαος pruced s [hːvereíkː], [hdrevélːs]); fr vicig fter s
-
rts, cf. Βορδῖνος fr Πορτῖνος, Ἀμβίλογος fr Ἀμφίλοχος, r the th’se Ξανδικός (< Ξανθικός).¹⁷ tzpuls (1999, 239; 2007, 165, 170) citesse istces f spirtes viced befre  sl (e.g., Σταδμείας, Σταδμέαςfr Σταθμέας), but these ight fll uder the rubric f ssiilti f syll
-
ble�l stps t  fllwig //: cf. *γράφμα > γράμμα, *ἀφῖκ�μαι > .ἀφῖγμαι (prbbly [phîːŋi̯]).¹⁸It hs bee repetedly rgued by the prpets f the Thrc�Phrygiypthesis tht cst vicig i Mcedi is  feture restricted tPNs d plce es d tht, eve i the rel f stics, vicig is ir
-
regulr d eve exceptil. Neither f these tw rguets is cget.O the e hd, vicig is dcueted i wrds ther th PNs i a(δαπῑνά fr ταπεινά) d i texts writte i Attic r i ie (e.g., ὑβό fr ὑπόr hypercrrect βεφαίως fr βεβαίως),¹⁹ s well s i esychius’ Mcediglsses.
11
 
Curiusly eugh, the dherets f the“New Sud f Attic” (i.e. Tedrss 1974 dhis epiges) ted t igie  sewht schiz
-
phreic dilect tht is extreely ivtive sregrds vclis d extreely cservtive sregrds cstis.
12
 
Severl yers g I hd the pprtuityt discuss se f these issues with tzpuls(see tzpuls 1999, 235; 2007, 162, 165, f.1). I brig the up here gi fr  re detiledd cprehesive verview.
13
 
The ctexts fr vicig y vry slight
-
ly fr e lguge t ther. Siilr phet
-
ic prcesses perted i ther Rce lgug
-
es. Nte tht Lt.
 f-
> Sp.
h-
> Ø�: Lt.
 fata
> MSp.
hada
['ð] ‘firy’.
14
 
The relevt geerlizti is thtspirtizti is blcked by y preced
-
ig hrgic rl cclusi: cf.
robot dé 
-
bil
[r'βd'deβil] ‘wek rbt’ (s gist
vozdébil
['b(ð)'ðeβil] ‘feeble vice’ r
abad débil
 ['b(ð)'ðeβil] ‘wek bbt’).
15
 
I thk Alcrc Als Déiz,  tive f Ls Pls de Gr Cri, fr se rst�hdifrti  Cri vicig.
16
 
Geerlly spekig, ther thigs beigequl, csts re re resistt t leitii wrd�iitil psiti th i wrd�iterlpsiti, but this rule f thub kws f seglrig, t fully uderstd exceptis: cf. Lt.
 pacem
> Bsque
 pake
/
bake
‘pece’ (Michele1977, 238–40, 529.).
17
 
Cf. Ἀμβίλογῳ,
IG
9.2.325B.6, Aegii(Thessly, d. lbk), R perid.
18
 
Obviusly, ssiilti i Σταδμ
i
-
vlves ly vicig s gist γράμμα, ἀφῖγμαιwhich iclude spredig f slity.
19
 
Cf. tzpuls 1991, 38–43,  7.5, A
-
phiplis, fter 357 BC.

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