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Drilling Engineering Ahmed-3

Drilling Engineering Ahmed-3

Ratings: (0)|Views: 128 |Likes:
Published by Loh Chun Liang

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Published by: Loh Chun Liang on Oct 20, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Circulating drilling mud in a well serves several purposes:(1) The mud removes well cuttings from the bottom of the well to allow drilling tocontinue. Without removing the cuttings, drilling would have to stop every few feetto remove the cuttings that clog up the bottom of the well as has to be done on a cabletool drilling rig.(2) As the mud flows across the bit, it cleans the cuttings from the teeth.(3) The drilling mud also cools and lubricates the bit.(4) In very soft sediments, the jetting action of the drilling mud squirting out of the bithelps cut the well.(5)The drilling mud also controls pressure in the well and prevents blowouts.  At the bottom of the well, there are two fluid pressures. Pressure on fluids in thepores of the rock (reservoir or fluid pressure) tries to force the fluids to flow throughthe rock and into the well. Pressure exerted by the weight of the drilling mud fillingthe well tries to force the drilling mud into the surrounding rocks.
If the pressure on the fluidin the subsurface rock is greater than the pressure of the drill-ingmud (underbalance), water, gas,or oil will flow out of the rock intothe well. This can cause the sidesof the well to cave in, trapping theequip-ment. In extreme cases, itcan cause a blowout where fluidsflow uncontrolled and oftenviolently onto the surface.In order to controlsubsurface fluid pressure, theweight of the drilling mud isadjusted to exert a greater pressure on the bottom of the wellthan the pressure on the fluid inthe rocks (overbalance).
Some of the drilling mud is then forced into the surrounding rocks duringdrilling. The rocks act as a filter, and the solid mud particles are plastered tothe sides of the well to form a filter or mud cake as the fluids enter the rock.The filter cake is very hard. It stabilizes the sides of the well and preventssubsurface fluids from flowing into the well.
 After a well has been drilled,the drilling mud is disposed of and not reused. If it isfresh water drilling mud, it can be spread on the adjacent land tofertilize the crops (land farming).Salt water, oil-based, and emulsiondrilling mud,however, usually have to be trucked away to a disposal site.On an offshore drilling rig, a barge can be used to bring the mud ashore to adisposal site.

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