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on einstein’s 1905 paper

on einstein’s 1905 paper

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Published by: oussama guessab on Oct 21, 2012
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05/13/2014

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1
 On Einstein’s 1905 paper,
2
 Emc
=
.
A. K. Hariri, N. Hamdan and A. Dahan
 
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo
-
Syria
E-mails:
 haririak2000@yahoo.com
,
nhamdan2@lycos.com
 
Abstract
As we know the derivation of mass – energy equivalencewhich is called Einstein's relation has been derived throughdifferent ways by Einstein and appeared in his article which waspublished in 1905. Einstein’s derivation is true under specialconditions only, not in general. Hence Einstein’s relationopened the door to many researchers who presented manypapers about this relation. On the other hand Einstein’sderivation also caused a lot of confusion. In this research wewill present Einstein's method in new ways where we will givea general method that valid to all of the relativistic and non-relativistic phenomena through applying the physical law andusing the classical principle of relativity, namely that the lawsof physics had to have the same form in any frame of referenceinstead of the special relativity principle as Einstein did.
Keywords
: Alternative theory to Einstein relativity, thephysical law and the classical principle of relativity.
 
 
2
 1-
Introduction
 
Einstein’s special theory of relativity first appeared in June 1905 in theAnnalen der Physik in Leipzig [1]. In September of the same year a shortpaper on relativity by Einstein appeared in the same Annalen in Leipzigtoo. In Sep. 1905 [2] paper, Einstein produced a derivation of the mass –energy equivalence relation which is called Einstein's relation. Theconclusion of this paper is that “If a body gives off the energy
 L
in theform of radiation, its mass diminishes by
 Lc
2
. Then He wrote the totalmass energy equation for an excited atom as follows:
2
 Emc
=
 And that was in comparison with the total energy equation of the photonwhich is:
2
mc E 
=
.Einstein considered his relation as relativistic and it cannot be derivedwithout using the basics of the theory of special relativity [1]. Einstein'smethods caused a lot of confusion to the researchers. Therefore thederivations of the mass energy equivalence are done in different ways bymany researchers too [3-8]. However, nobody appears to have ever askedthe question of how Einstein’s formula
 
2
mc E 
=
could be proven generallyvalid and developed from physical laws [9]. Therefore, we started fromthe classical laws to rebuild the theory of special relativity. This enablesus to derive Einstein’s formula
 
2
mc E 
=
from the classical laws withoutany of the well-known approaches. Our purpose in this paper is to explainand clarify the defect in Einstein’s methods and then to present a generalway to the derivation of the mass-energy equivalence depending on newbasics [10-14] in building the theory of special relativity without itsfamous contradictions i.e.; the shortcomings of the Lorentz
 
 
3
transformation and its kinematic effects; i.e. length contraction and timedilation [15-17].
Einstein Approach 1905
In his paper [1], Einstein showed that the mass of a moving bodyincreases with its speed as
022
1
mmvc
=
and the he derived therelativistic Doppler relations
(1cos)
u LLc
γ φ 
=
. The famous
2
mc E 
=
 relation is a consequence of these facts as we will see.Einstein started with a thought experiment. He considered an excitedatom at rest in an inertial frame
that emits at one time two photons of energy
 L
in opposite directions, so the energy of the two photons is:
12
2
 LLL
π υ 
= = =
(1)If this result will be analyzed from the inertial frame
which is inrelative motion with speed
 // 
uox
between them.We then have:
(1cos)
u LLc
γ φ 
=
(2)In the beginning we will resume presenting Einstein’s way in the specialsituation when
φ 
=
0
 
and that is for avoiding Stachel and Torretticriticism [18]. The conservation of energy principle for this situation in
can be written as
01
1122
 EELL
= + +
(3)Where
0
 E 
and
1
 E 
are, respectively, total energy of the excited atombefore and after the emission of the light as measured in
 
. Theconservation of energy principle for the body as observed from
 \ 
can bewritten as:

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