Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
5Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Cost determination of the electro-mechanical equipment of a small hydro-power plant

Cost determination of the electro-mechanical equipment of a small hydro-power plant

Ratings: (0)|Views: 382|Likes:
Published by Patricio Leonardo
Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 6–13
Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 6–13

More info:

Published by: Patricio Leonardo on Oct 22, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/08/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Review
Cost determination of the electro-mechanical equipmentof a small hydro-power plant
B. Ogayar
*
, P.G. Vidal
Grupo de Investigacio´n IDEA, Escuela Polite´cnica Superior, University of Jaen, Campus de Las Lagunillas, s/n. 23071-Jaen, Spain
a r t i c l e i n f o
 Article history:
Received 15 October 2007Accepted 25 April 2008Available online 17 July 2008
Keywords:
Small hydroCostElectro-mechanical equipment
a b s t r a c t
One of the most important elements on the recovery of a small hydro-power plant is the electro-mechanical equipment (turbine–alternator), since the cost of the equipment means a high percentage of the total budgetof the plant. The present paper intends to develop a series of equations which determineits cost from basic parameters such as power and net head. These calculations are focused at a level of previous study, so it will be necessary to carry out the engineering project and request a budget tocompanies specialized on the construction of electro-mechanical equipment to know its cost moreaccurately. Although there is a great diversity in the typology of turbines and alternators, data frommanufacturers which cover all the considered range have been used. The above equations have beendeveloped for the most common of turbines: Pelton, Francis, Kaplan and semiKaplan for a power rangebelow 2 MW.The obtained equations have been validated with data from real installations which have been subject toanalysis by engineering companies working on the assembly and design of small plants.
Ó
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
The cost of the electro-mechanical equipment (turbine, alter-nator and regulator) means a high percentage of a small hydro-powerplantbudget(around 30%and 40%of thetotalsum).Itstemsfrom this the importance of the determination of that cost, whichcould directly influence the project feasibility (Fig. 1).For the determination of the cost of the electro-mechanicalequipment, there are graphs which can approximately calculatethose costs. But these graphs refer to a distant time period, sincethey use to be at least 10 years old. Besides, manufacturers of turbines and alternators do not supply any information about cost,since every installation is different and complex.An example of these graphs are those developed by theInstitute for Energy Diversification and Saving [Instituto para laDiversificacio´n y Ahorro de la Energı´a, IDAE, Spain], with which itis possible to determinate the cost of a turbine depending on itspower and net head[7].From an analytical point of view and analyzing the state of artfor the calculation of the cost of electro-mechanical equipment, ithas been checked that a great part of authors use an expressiondepending on the power (
) and net head (
) of the small plant.This expression is
COST
¼
a
b
À
1
ð
V
=
kW
Þ
(1)
where
a
,
b
and
coefficients depend on the geographical, space ortime field in which they are used.Among some bibliographical references, it should be remarkedthe contribution made by J.L. Gordon and Penman[3]two of thegreatest specialists on the design of small plants. They werepioneers in using an equation which generally relates the cost of the equipment with its power and net head.Subsequently, several authors have developed different costequationsfordifferentcountries[1,11,12,15].OneofthemostrecentbyDr.Kaldellis[8,9],in2007,forplantslocatedinGreecewasproposed.Some functions of costs that have been developed in the liter-ature for various regions are shown inTable 1. This table alsogathers the year in which that functions were proposed.
2. Cost analysis methodolog
Given that the different existing equations are more than 20years old, checking large differences between them and havingenough current data of costs depending on power and head, wecarried out the determination of the constants
a
,
b
and
of expression(1).For the determination of these parameters a best-fit analysiswill be carried out for diverse costs. The methodology of thisanalysis has been included in theAppendix.
*
Corresponding author. Tel.:
þ
34 953212858; fax:
þ
34 953212478.
E-mail address:
bogayar@ujaen.es(B. Ogayar).
Contents lists available atScienceDirect
Renewable Energy
0960-1481/$ – see front matter
Ó
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.04.039
Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 6–13
 
The constants
a
,
b
,
are obtained through the followingexpressions.
a
¼
e
À
D
(10)
b
¼ À
 A
(11)
¼ À
B
(12)
Since costs are determined bythe independent variables, powerand net head, as well as by the typology of turbines, it will be alsonecessary to discriminate between different types of turbines todeterminate the value of the constants.The cost includes the ex-works market price of the electro-mechanical equipment (turbine, alternator, automatic valve,aspiration and pneumatic regulation elements). The maintenancecost is not included.For this analysis, we have used, among others, data from thesmall plants included in the project Study on Feasibility andPotential for refurbishment of Hydro-power Plants in the Prov-ince of Jaen, carried out on request of AGENER (Agency of EnergyManagement in the province of Jaen), as well as those includedin Determination and Feasibility of Small Hydro-power Plants inthe Andalusian Autonomous Community, project financed by theAndalusian Energy Agency, organization belonging to theMinistry for Innovation, Science and Enterprise of the Andalu-sian Regional Government. The location of the plants is shown inFig. 2.Obtained results for each type of turbine are described below.
3. Pelton turbines
Carrying out the linear correlation, we obtain the plane
 Z 
¼
9
:
78098
þ
0
:
635275
 X 
À
0
:
281735
;
(13)
with a quite good fit of 
R
2
¼
93.16%.Once the equation
is obtained, and according to Eqs.(10)–(12)searched constants would value
a
¼
e
9
:
7809
¼
17
:
693
b
¼
0
:
635275
¼ À
0
:
281735(14)
Cost equation for these constant values would be the following
1
COST
¼
17
:
693
À
0
:
3644725
À
0
:
281735
ð
V
=
kW
Þ
:
(15)
The graphic representation of the afore-mentioned surface isshown inFigs.3 and 4. In these figures, it is noticeable howthecostis proportional to power and head, except in low heads, where thecost increases noticeably.Comparing real cost with that obtained through Eq.(15), thedegree of approximation or error of the equation can bedetermined. The different plants whose committed error wascalculated are shown inTable 2.In the above table, it is noticeable that errors range between
À
23.83% and
þ
20.015%, so they are limited to a fluctuation rangeof 
Æ
20%. They are completely acceptable figures for a previousstudy.
4. Francis turbines
Carrying out linear correlation:
 Z 
¼
10
:
1542
þ
0
:
439865
 X 
À
0
:
127243
R
2
¼
72
:
26
 % 
(16)
a
¼
e
10
:
1542
¼
25
:
698
b
¼
0
:
439865
¼ À
0
:
127243(17)COST
¼
25
:
698
À
0
:
560135
À
0
:
127243
ð
V
=
kW
Þ
:
(18)
The cost function of a Francis turbine(18)is graphically showninFigs. 5 and 6; a strong cost increase for high power levels andheads lower than 100 m is noticeable.Incurrederrorshaverangedbetween
þ
22.27%and
À
15.83%.Thelargest errors appear within the band of power level ranging from300 to 400 kW (Table 3).
5. Kaplan–semiKaplan turbines
The different constants for Kaplan and semiKaplan turbineshave been obtained carrying out linear correlation in a similar wayto that for Pelton and Francis turbines. Those constants are listed inTable 4.Cost equations would therefore be
COST
¼
19
:
498
À
0
:
58338
À
0
:
113901
ð
V
=
kW
Þ
(19)COST
¼
33
:
236
À
0
:
58338
À
0
:
113901
ð
V
=
kW
Þ
(20)
The cost function of a semiKlapan turbine(19)and Kaplanturbine(20)are graphically shown inFigs. 7 and 8, respectively. In the same way, errors incurred using cost equations areshown inTable 5. These errors are similar to those obtained forPelton and Francis turbines, since they range between
þ
23.50%and
À
18.53%.
6. Summary of results
TheTable 6lists the results obtained, including cost equationsper power unit, their
R
2
related and error range, for each type of machine.
40%8%22%30%
CIVILWORKS
TURBOGENERATORSETCONSTRUCTIONENGINEERING ANDMANAGEMENTELECTRIC,REGULATIONAND CONTROLEQUIPMENTS
Fig 1.
Distribution of investments on a hydro-power plant.
1
Cost is expressed in
V
/kW and referred as of 1st January 2008.
B. Ogayar, P.G. Vidal / Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 6–13
7
 
7. Validation of results
Equations obtained for every type of turbine have been vali-dated among engineering companies working in the design andassembly of small plants. It is noticeably that all of them perfectlyfulfil all manufacturing standards and that cost deviation is thatexpected in every studied case for different types of realinstallations.These companies have provided the following actual costs of electro-mechanical equipment plants located in Europe andNorthern Africa. We have simulated the various costs, using equa-tions of Table 6,and then determined the various errors. In the
Fig 2.
Map of location of plants.
 Table 1
Cost functions found in literatureCost function Country Year Author
(2) COST
ð
$
Þ ¼
9000
0
:
7
À
0
:
35
Canada 1978 Gordon and Penman[3,4]
(3) COST
ð
$
Þ ¼
97
:
436
0
:
53
À
0
:
53
Sweden 1979 Lasu and Persson[10]
(4) COST
ð
$
Þ ¼
9600
0
:
82
À
0
:
35
USA 1984 Gulliver[6]
(5) COST
ð
$
=
kW
Þ ¼
31
:
500
0
:
25
À
0
:
75
United Kingdom 1988 Whittington[14]
(6) COST
ð
$
Þ ¼
40
:
000
0
:
70
À
0
:
35
Greece 2000 Voros[13]
(7) COST
ð
FRS
Þ ¼
10
3
ð
34
:
12
þ
16
:
99
,
0
:
91
À
0
:
14
Þ
Switzerland 2000 Chenal[2]
(8) COST
ð
$
=
kW
Þ ¼
12
:
9
0
:
82
À
0
:
246
Canada 2003 Gordon[5]
(9) COST
ð
V
=
kW
Þ ¼
3
:
300
ð
À
0
:
122
À
0
:
107
Þ
Greece 2007 Kaldellis[8,9]
B. Ogayar, P.G. Vidal / Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 6–13
8

Activity (5)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
max8664 liked this
Narender Kalsi liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->