Cost determination of the electro-mechanical equipmentof a small hydro-power plant
, P.G. Vidal
Grupo de Investigacio´n IDEA, Escuela Polite´cnica Superior, University of Jaen, Campus de Las Lagunillas, s/n. 23071-Jaen, Spain
a r t i c l e i n f o
Received 15 October 2007Accepted 25 April 2008Available online 17 July 2008
Small hydroCostElectro-mechanical equipment
a b s t r a c t
One of the most important elements on the recovery of a small hydro-power plant is the electro-mechanical equipment (turbine–alternator), since the cost of the equipment means a high percentage of the total budgetof the plant. The present paper intends to develop a series of equations which determineits cost from basic parameters such as power and net head. These calculations are focused at a level of previous study, so it will be necessary to carry out the engineering project and request a budget tocompanies specialized on the construction of electro-mechanical equipment to know its cost moreaccurately. Although there is a great diversity in the typology of turbines and alternators, data frommanufacturers which cover all the considered range have been used. The above equations have beendeveloped for the most common of turbines: Pelton, Francis, Kaplan and semiKaplan for a power rangebelow 2 MW.The obtained equations have been validated with data from real installations which have been subject toanalysis by engineering companies working on the assembly and design of small plants.
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The cost of the electro-mechanical equipment (turbine, alter-nator and regulator) means a high percentage of a small hydro-powerplantbudget(around 30%and 40%of thetotalsum).Itstemsfrom this the importance of the determination of that cost, whichcould directly inﬂuence the project feasibility (Fig. 1).For the determination of the cost of the electro-mechanicalequipment, there are graphs which can approximately calculatethose costs. But these graphs refer to a distant time period, sincethey use to be at least 10 years old. Besides, manufacturers of turbines and alternators do not supply any information about cost,since every installation is different and complex.An example of these graphs are those developed by theInstitute for Energy Diversiﬁcation and Saving [Instituto para laDiversiﬁcacio´n y Ahorro de la Energı´a, IDAE, Spain], with which itis possible to determinate the cost of a turbine depending on itspower and net head.From an analytical point of view and analyzing the state of artfor the calculation of the cost of electro-mechanical equipment, ithas been checked that a great part of authors use an expressiondepending on the power (
) and net head (
) of the small plant.This expression is
coefﬁcients depend on the geographical, space ortime ﬁeld in which they are used.Among some bibliographical references, it should be remarkedthe contribution made by J.L. Gordon and Penmantwo of thegreatest specialists on the design of small plants. They werepioneers in using an equation which generally relates the cost of the equipment with its power and net head.Subsequently, several authors have developed different costequationsfordifferentcountries[1,11,12,15].OneofthemostrecentbyDr.Kaldellis[8,9],in2007,forplantslocatedinGreecewasproposed.Some functions of costs that have been developed in the liter-ature for various regions are shown inTable 1. This table alsogathers the year in which that functions were proposed.
2. Cost analysis methodology
Given that the different existing equations are more than 20years old, checking large differences between them and havingenough current data of costs depending on power and head, wecarried out the determination of the constants
of expression(1).For the determination of these parameters a best-ﬁt analysiswill be carried out for diverse costs. The methodology of thisanalysis has been included in theAppendix.
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2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.04.039
Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 6–13