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Factors Affecting Forging Process in Steel 1018

Factors Affecting Forging Process in Steel 1018

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International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications (IJSEA)Volume 1 Issue 1, 2012
22www.ijsea.com
Factors Affecting Forging Process in Steel 1018
Godwin Barnabas.sVelammal College of Engg. & Tech.Madurai, TamilnaduPrabhakaran.RVelammal College of Engg. & Tech.Madurai, TamilnaduSatheeshkumaran TVelammal College of Engg. & Tech.Madurai, TamilnaduJanarthanan.SVelammal College of Engg. & Tech.Madurai, Tamilnadu
Abstract
:
Forging is the working of metal into a useful shape by hammering or pressing. This is a oldest of the metalworking art (
p
r
i
m
iti
v
e
b
l
a
cks
m
it
h
).Replacement of machinery occurred during early the
Industrial
r
e
v
o
l
u
t
ion
. Mostforging operations are carried out
ho
t
, although certain metals may be
c
o
l
d
-
o
r
g
e
d
. In this paper we are going to see theprocess parameters that affect forging. And also the solution for improving the process to increase the productivity
.
Key words: parameters, forging, process, productivity, effect
 
1.
 
INTRODUCTION
:
This paper provides fundamental process parametersthat affect forging. And the mathematical approachesused in the calculation required to improve the finalproduct. Classification of process parameters thataffects forging is also provided with descriptions of defects observed from the forging processes.Thesolutions to tackle such defects will also beaddressed.Forging is the working of metal into auseful shape by hammering or pressing. The oldest of the metal working arts(
p
r
i
m
iti
v
e
b
l
a
cks
m
it
h
).Replacement of machinery occurredduring early the
Industrial
r
e
v
o
l
u
ti
on
. Forgingmachines are now capable of making parts ranging insize of a bolt to a
t
u
r
b
i
n
e
r
o
t
o
r
. Most forgingoperations are carried out
ho
t
, although certain metalsmay be
c
o
l
d
-
o
r
g
e
d.
Drawing Is used to reduce thecross-sectional area of the work piece with concurrentincrease in length. Piercing a
nd
punching
are used toproduce holes in metals. in forging the load wascalculated without considering the friction. But therewill be a small amount of friction due to the interfacebetween work piece and the material. If we considerthe friction in load calculation we can get a betteroutput.
 
2.
 
LITERATURE:
 
M. Irani1, A. KarimiTaheri
[1]Precision forgingis a suitable process to produce spur gears due to itsadvantages such as reduction in machining time andproduction cost. The homogeneity in microstructure andmechanical properties of precision forging products canhighly affect the performance of the gears during theirservice. In this research the effect of precision forgingtemperature on homogeneity of microstructure andhardness of forged gears of low carbon steel is studied. Themicrostructure and hardness map of the gears forged at atemperature range of 750
 – 
1150
C revealed that the forgingtemperature of 950
C is an optimum temperature toproduce a spur five teeth gear with minimuminhomogeneity in the microstructure and hardnessdistribution.S. B. Mehta#1, D. B. Gohil#2[2]Thecomputational modeling and simulation of forging processis now well established. But finite element (FE) analysis of forging process generally takes a long time to carry out.Also it requires a particular skill set from its user. The mainobjective of this document is to discuss the analyticalmethods for measuring parameters such as load, and stressdistribution of forging process and use them to make asimple, reliable, fast and non-expensive simulation tool,with a GUI
, contrary to the commercial software’s which
require much means, time and a perfect knowledge of theprocess. Of the various methods used for analysing forgingoperations, the most often usoften used SLAB method techniques are described here.M.K.A. Ariffin A.A. Faieza[3]The objective of this paper is to obtain an optimal billet shape in theconsiderationof the influence of the metal flow deformationin closed die forging process. Finite elementmethod inconjunction with optimization algorithm was used toanalyze the effect of billetshape on forging load inaxisymmetric closed die forging process. Finite elementsoftware(ANSYS) was used to simulate closed die forgingprocess and then performing a series ofoptimizationiterations in order to obtain the optimal shape of the billetbased on forgingload minimization. The material used isaluminium metal matrix composite (AlMgSimatrix with15% SiC particles). The goal of the simulation andoptimization process is tominimize the forging load andproduce crack-free forgings. The optimal shape of thebilletthat gives minimum forging load was obtained afterseveral optimization iterations. Theapproach used in thisstudy could be extended to the optimization of morecomplicatedforging products.O. Barraua, C. Bohera
 ,
, R. Gras b, F. Rezai-Ariaa[4]A significant part of the energy in forging is used tobreak the interfacial junctions due to friction between thetool and the workpiece. The life of hot-forging tools isusually limited by complex interactive mechanisms under
 
International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications (IJSEA)Volume 1 Issue 1, 2012
23www.ijsea.com
cyclic loading such as abrasive, adhesive and scaling wear,thermal and mechanical fatigue, and plasticdeformation.This contribution deals with the wearmechanisms of the tempered martensitic X38CrMoV5 steel(AISI H11) under high-temperatureand dry-sliding wear.The investigations are carried out with high-temperaturepin-on-disc tests. The pin is cut from bars of X38CrMoV5steel treated at 42 and 47 HRC. The disc is made of common steel (AISI 1018, XC18). Temperature of the discranges from 20 to 950
C. Before the test starts, the disc isfirst pre-heated for 1 h. The experiments are performedunder constant load and velocity. The friction coefficientdecreases quasi-linearly with the rising disc temperature upto800
C. Over this temperature, it decreases drastically forthe 42HRC steel but remains linear for the 47HRC steel.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energydispersive spectrometry (EDS) investigations have revealedthat wear is essentially due to abrasion, plastic deformationand fatigue. Set of cracks due to contact rolling fatigue isobserved on the pin and the disc. Those cracks are locatedon the transferred scale on the pin and on the oxide scale of the disc wear track. The cross-section observations of thepin have revealed a plastically deformed zone beneath thesurface. In this sub-surface layer, the tempered martensiticmicrostructure seems to be more aligned due to friction andthe plastic deformation. Alloy 1018 is the most commonlyavailable of the cold-rolled steels. It is generally availablein round rod, square bar, and rectangle bar. It has a goodcombination of all of the typical traits of steel - strength,some ductility, and comparative ease of machining.Chemically, it is very similar to A36 Hot Rolled steel, butthe cold rolling process creates a better surface finish andbetter properties.
3.
 
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNWITH TAGUCHI METHOD:
 
The Taguchi method involves reducing thevariation in a process through robust design of experiments.The overall objective of the method is to produce highquality product at low cost to the manufacturer. TheTaguchi method was developed by Dr. Genichi Taguchi of Japan who maintained that variation. Therefore, poorquality in a process affects not only the manufacturer butalso society. Method for designing experiments toinvestigate how different parameters affect the mean andvariance of a process performance characteristic thatdefines how well the process is functioning. Theexperimental design proposed by Taguchi involves usingorthogonal arrays to organize the parameters affecting theprocess and the levels at which they should be varied; itallows for the collection of the necessary data to determinewhich factors most affect product quality with a minimumamount of experimentation, thus saving time and resources.Analysis of variance on the collected data from the Taguchidesign of experiments can be used to select new parametervalues to optimize the performance characteristic. In thisarticle, the specific steps involved in the application of theTaguchi method will be described and examples of usingthe Taguchi method to design experiments will be given.
Table : 1 process parameters with levels
Parameter Level 1 Level 2 Level 3Temperature(
o
c)1800 1700 1600Pressure (N/M) 2.45E6 2.39E6 2.29E6Friction factor 0.63 0.53 0.44An
array’s
name indicates the number of rows andcolumns in the as, and also the number of levels in each of the columns. Thus, the array(L934) has nine rows and fourcolumns of three levels. With the selection of (L934)orthogonal array, using four parameters and three levelsfor each, the number of experiments required can bedrastically reduced to nine, which in classical combinationmethod using full factorial experimentation wouldrequire34=81 number of experiments to capture theinfluencing parameters. The SSF process parametersnamely Forging Temperature (A), percent reduction (B)and die preheating temperature (C) are assigned to thefirst, second and third columns of (L934) array,respectively.
4.
 
CONDUCT OF THEEXPERIMENTS AND DATACOLLECTION
A steel 1018,popular in industrial products, is usedfor the investigation of mechanical properties The platetype conventional casting sample was cut intodimensions 100 X60 X40mm3. The next step in Taguchimethod is to conduct the experiments. A 150tonscapacity hydraulic Press is employed for the applicationof pressure. The experimental setup is shown in Figure.These samples were heated in a resistance-heatingfurnace at temperature ranges between 1600oCto1800oC for 45 minutes of soaking time. Before forgingthe die setup of the Hydraulic Press was pre-heated tothe temperature ranges between 150oC to 2500C as perTaguchi design of experiments. Forging is performedwith the help of Hydraulic press with different reductionin the thickness of the each sample as per Taguchi designdata sheet of (L934) OA for each trial condition and theyare shown in Figure. Then the forged samples werecooled in atmosphere for2hours. Test specimens carvedout of these samples
.
Surface hardness data values arecollected from each specimen at four locations. Thesurface hardness values for nine trial conditions withfour measurement locations have been recorded. Thesevalues along with the average response values are shownin Table2.
 
International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications (IJSEA)Volume 1 Issue 1, 2012
24www.ijsea.com
Fig1: hydraulic press
SN
i
= 10 log y
2
S
i2
 S
i2 
=
Y
i
=
Wherei = experiment numberN
i
= number of trial for experiment iU = trial number
Table2:Results of (L9) Orthogonal Array Experiments
Table 3: Average response for raw data
Where n is the number of measurements in a trial (heren=3) and yiis the ithresponse for each noise repetitionANOVA computation is performed for evaluating thesignificance of the process parameters over hardness.Table3 and Table4 show the average effect response forraw data and S/N ratio. From Table5 it is observed thatpercent reduction is the most significant factor for theresponse hardness.
Table4:Average Effect Response for S/N Ratio 
Levels
 
A: ForgingTemp.
 
B: %load
 
C:friction
 
1
 
48.10
 
43.39
 
52.85
 
2
 
49.42
 
50.15
 
44.63
 
3
 
45.52
 
48.51
 
44.57
 
Maximum-Minimum
 
4.90
 
6.75
 
8.28
 
Rank 
 
3
 
2
 
1
 
Table5: Computation of ANOVA
NPARAMETERSASSINMENTHARDNESS (BHN)AVG(BHN)S/N
RATIO
AB C 1 2 311800 2.45E6 0.63 117.9 117.6 116.3 117.2 42.721800 2.39E6 0.53 117.7 116.4 117.1 117.0 45.431800 2.29E6 0.44 117.9 116.7 117.5 117.3 30.841700 2.45E6 0.53 116.3 117.1 116.2 116.5 47.351700 2.39E6 0.44 115.9 115.8 116.1 115.9 34.7261700 2.29E6 0.63 115.7 116.6 115 115.7 43.1771600 2.45E6 0.44 115.9 115.7 116.1 115.9 55.2681600 2.39E6 0.53 114.7 114.9 115.6 115.0 41.2191600 2.29E6 0.63 114.1 114.1 115.9 114.7 41.30
Levels A: ForgingTem.B: %load C:friction1 48.10 43.39 52.852 49.42 50.15 44.633 45.52 48.51 44.57Maximum-Minimum4.90 6.75 8.28Rank 3 2 1

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