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Decision Making and Emotions

Decision Making and Emotions

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Published by Katerina Dimitriou

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Published by: Katerina Dimitriou on Oct 22, 2012
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This article was downloaded by: [94.67.99.234]On: 22 October 2012, At: 11:21Publisher: Psychology PressInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office:Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
Cognition & Emotion
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscriptioninformation:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/pcem20
The influence of discrete emotions on judgement and decision-making: A meta-analytic review
Amanda D. Angie
a
, Shane Connelly
a
, Ethan P. Waples
b
& Vykinta Kligyte
ca
Department of Psychology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
b
Department of Management, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond,OK, USA
c
Development Dimensions International (DDI), Toronto, Ontario, CanadaVersion of record first published: 15 Apr 2011.
To cite this article:
Amanda D. Angie, Shane Connelly, Ethan P. Waples & Vykinta Kligyte (2011): Theinfluence of discrete emotions on judgement and decision-making: A meta-analytic review, Cognition &Emotion, 25:8, 1393-1422
To link to this article:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2010.550751
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLEFull terms and conditions of use:http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionsThis article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantialor systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, ordistribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that thecontents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae,and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources.The publisher shall notbe liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever orhowsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of thismaterial.
 
 The influence of discrete emotions on judgementand decision-making: A meta-analytic review 
 Amanda D. Angie
1
, Shane Connelly 
1
, Ethan P. Waples
2
, and Vykinta Kligyte
3
1
Department of Psychology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
2
Department of Management, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK, USA
3
Development Dimensions International (DDI), Toronto, Ontario, CanadaDuring the past three decades, researchers interested in emotions and cognition have attempted tounderstand the relationship that affect and emotions have with cognitive outcomes such as judgement and decision-making. Recent research has revealed the importance of examining morediscrete emotions, showing that same-valence emotions (e.g., anger and fear) differentially impact judgement and decision-making outcomes. Narrative reviews of the literature (Lerner & Tiedens,2006; Pham, 2007) have identified some under-researched topics, but provide a limited synthesis of findings. The purpose of this study was to review the research examining the influence of discreteemotions on judgement and decision-making outcomes and provide an assessment of the observedeffects using a meta-analytic approach. Results, overall, show that discrete emotions have moderate tolarge effects on judgement and decision-making outcomes. However, moderator analyses revealeddifferential effects for study-design characteristics and emotion-manipulation characteristics by emotion type. Implications are discussed.
Keywords:
Emotions; Judgement; Decision-making; Meta-analysis.
During the past three decades, researchers inter-ested in emotions and human cognition haveattempted to understand the complex relation-ship that affect and emotions have with differentcognitive outcomes such as judgement anddecision-making (JDM; Johnson & Tversky,1983; Loewenstein & Lerner, 2003). Many early studies on this topic focused on examining theimpact of general positive and negative affectivestates on decision-making processes, treatingaffect and emotions as unidimensional andbipolar (e.g., positive/negative or happy/sad)constructs (Clore, Schwarz, & Conway, 1994;Forgas, 1995; Raghunathan & Corfman, 2004;Schwarz, 1990). Isen and colleagues have pro-duced a corpus of research on the influence of global positive affect on cognitive outcomes suchas cognitive organisation and flexibility, problemsolving, decision-making, and risk taking (Isen & Labroo, 2002). Overall, their investigations andothers have shown that affect does play a role, with positive affect having a facilitative influenceand negative affect demonstrating more mixedresults (Isen, 2001; Martin, Ward, Achee,
Correspondence should be addressed to: Amanda D. Angie, 247 Tennessee Ave., Alexandria, VA 22305, USA. E-mail:Amanda.d.angie@gmail.com
COGNITION AND EMOTION2011, 25 (8), 1393
 Á 
1422
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2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa businesshttp://www.psypress.com/cogemotionhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2010.550751
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 Wyer, 1993; Schwarz, Bless, & Bohner, 1991).However, recent research has revealed the impor-tance of examining how discrete emotions influ-ence human cognition, showing that same-valenceemotions (e.g., anger and fear) impact JDM out-comesindifferentways(DeSteno,Petty,Wegener,& Rucker, 2000; Garg, Inman, & Mittal, 2005;Lerner & Keltner, 2000; Raghunathan & Trope,2002). To date, narrative reviews of the emotions anddecision-making literature (Lerner & Tiedens,2006; Pham, 2007) have identified some topics inneed of additional study, but in general haveprovided a limited synthesis of overall findings. Inparticular, these reviews tend to focus on only asmall subset of discrete emotions and thus do notintegrate the variety of JDM studies conductedusing discrete emotions (e.g., economic decision-making, persuasion, likelihood judgements, etc.). The primary purpose of this study was to review the research examining the influence of discreteemotions on JDM outcomes using a meta-analytic approach. It should be noted, however,that due to the range of empirical research andadvancements in theory development in this areathe literature includes a variety of cognitiveoutcomes (e.g., endowment effect, risk judge-ments, choice to buy a product, etc.) as well as a wide range of hypotheses attempting to explainthe effects of discrete emotions on JDM (e.g.,cognitive appraisals of dimensions of emotion,depth of processing, activation of active andpassive responses, etc.). This array of outcomesand hypotheses makes it difficult to establish anormative method for assigning positive ornegative values to the effect sizes. Thus, thecurrent meta-analysis uses the absolute values of the effect sizes coded from the eligible studies. While this method limits some of the conclusionsthat can be drawn from the results of the meta-analysis (i.e., positive or negative effects of specific emotions), it still provides a synthesis of the magnitude of effect that discrete emotionshave on JDM and has implications for theoreticaland methodological considerations in future re-search. In addition, research studies investigatingemotions have adopted different methods of manipulation, measurement, and evaluation of their effects on JDM. These methodologicalfactors may play a role in the effects seen across various studies. Therefore, the secondary purposeof this study was to examine the influence of potential moderator variables.
Emotions and cognition
Early circumplex models of emotion (Plutchik,1991; Russell, 1980; Watson & Tellegen, 1985) viewed emotional experience as being comprisedof arousal and valence. This conceptual represen-tation was used as a framework for studyingrelationships of emotions to cognitive and beha- vioural outcomes. However, discrepancies in find-ings began to emerge for cognitive outcomes suchas JDM, pointing to the need for a more fine-grained approach to describing and accounting fordifferences seen within these dimensions. Re-searchers have begun to focus on contrastingdifferent discrete emotions (e.g., fear and happi-ness) in an attempt to better understand theirinfluence on cognitive outcomes.
Discrete emotions.
Discrete emotions are consid-ered to be short-lived, intense phenomena thatusually have clear cognitive content that isaccessible to the person experiencing the emotion(Clore et al., 1994). In contrast to affect, discreteemotions are specific feeling states that arise from‘‘stimulus events’’, which refers to both events thathappen and to prevailing situations (Frijda, 1986). The events or situations have attributes thatuniquely trigger the experience of specific emo-tions while the emotions themselves have distinctaction tendencies or behavioural outputs. It is thisemphasis on the cognitive aspects of the experi-ence and expression of discrete emotions thatmakes them particularly relevant to more cogni-tively oriented outcomes.Much of the research conducted on discreteemotions has focused on contrasting anger andfear, noting that their patterns of appraisaltendencies are opposite from one another onseveral dimensions and therefore each will impact
 ANGIE ET AL.
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COGNITION AND EMOTION, 2011, 25 (8)
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