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Delay

Delay

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Published by Amah Susyanti

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Published by: Amah Susyanti on Oct 23, 2012
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12/04/2012

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1
Delay-Differential Equations
Richard Bertram
Department of Mathematics andPrograms in Neuroscience and Molecular BiophysicsFlorida State UniversityTallahassee, Florida 32306
 
2
At the beginning of the course we discussed the
discretelogistic equation
for population dynamics. This equationhas also be used to study complex dynamics such as chaos. Wenow turn to thecontinuous logistic equation:
dN dt
=
rN 
[1
] (1)where
r
and
are the growth rate and carrying capacity and
is the population density. The independent time variable is
t
. Equation 1 can be rewritten as
dN dt
=
R
(
)
(2)where
R
(
) =
r
(1
) is a density-dependent growth rateand is a decreasing function of 
. There are two steady states,
,
1
= 0 and
,
2
=
, but only the latter is stable (when
r >
0). Thus, the population will tend to it’s carrying capacityover time.The logisitc equation assumes that the organism’s birth ratedepends instantaneously on changes in population size. How-ever, in many cases there should be a delay. For example, manyorganisms store nutrients, so won’t notice immediately if the
 
3
population grows too large for the available resourses. In 1948G. E. Hutchinson modified the logistic equation to incorporatea delay into the growth rate, so
R
(
) becomes
R
(
(
t
τ 
)):
dN dt
=
rN 
[1
(
t
τ 
)
] (3)where
τ 
is the
delay
. We can write this in dimensionless formby introducing the following changes of variable:
y
and
t
t
τ 
. A delay of 
τ 
is simply a delay of 1 in the new timevariable. Also,
dN dt
=
dN dtdtdt
=1
τ dN dt.
(4)So in the dimensionless form,
dydt
=
y
[1
y
(
t
1)]
.
(5)Define
α
rτ 
, so that the time delay is absorbed into the
α
parameter. Then Eq. 5 becomes
dydt
=
αy
[1
y
(
t
1)]
.
(6)Now denote
y
(
t
1) as
y
τ 
; it is a delayed variable. Then wefinally arrive at thedimensionless delay-logistic equation,
dydt
=
αy
[1
y
τ 
]
.
(7)

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