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Impact of Water Scarcity on Egyptian National Security and on Regional Security in the Nile River Basin

Impact of Water Scarcity on Egyptian National Security and on Regional Security in the Nile River Basin

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Published by Chuck Achberger

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Published by: Chuck Achberger on Oct 23, 2012
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 THE IMPACT OF WATER SCARCITY ON EGYPTIAN NATIONAL SECURITY ANDON REGIONAL SECURITY IN THE NILE RIVER BASINA thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. ArmyCommand and General Staff College in partialfulfillment of the requirements for thedegreeMASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCEStrategic StudiesbyMOHAMED ELSHOPKY, MAJOR., EGYPT
M.Sc., Commanders and Staff Officers College, Cairo, 2008B.Sc., Military Academy, Cairo, 1998
 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas2012-01Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
 
ii
REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE
Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 
 
Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing datasources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any otheraspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate forInformation Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstandingany other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB controlnumber.
PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS.
 
1. REPORT DATE
(DD-MM-YYYY)
 
08-06-2012
 
2. REPORT TYPE
Master’s Thesis
3. DATES COVERED
(From - To)
 
AUG 2011 – JUN 2012
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
The Impact of Water Scarcity on Egyptian national security andon regional security in the Nile River Basin
5a. CONTRACT NUMBER5b. GRANT NUMBER5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER6. AUTHOR(S)
Mohamed Elshopky, Maj., Egyptain Army
5d. PROJECT NUMBER5e. TASK NUMBER5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)
U.S. Army Command and General Staff CollegeATTN: ATZL-SWD-GDFort Leavenworth, KS 66027-2301
8. PERFORMING ORG REPORTNUMBER9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’SACRONYM(S)11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORTNUMBER(S)12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT
Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited
13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES14. ABSTRACT
With a rapidly growing population, increased urbanization, higher standards of living and an agricultural policy whichemphasizes expanded production in order to feed the growing masses, the Government of Egypt finds itself in a criticalsituation where both internal planning, along with regional and international cooperation are paramount for making optimumuse of this incredibly scarce resource. Egypt, and the rest of the Nile Basin countries, have been sharing water under the“original” 1929 Treaty provisions; amended only in 1959. With the transformation of government in Egypt, as well as the riseof new actors (such as S. Sudan), planning objectives and management procedures must factor in the needs of not only thepeople of Egypt, but also the concerns of key regional actors; particularly Ethiopia and Sudan.As water in Egypt becomes scare, surface-water sources originating from the Nile River Basin now make it a ‘potentialflashpoint’ in Africa as multiple countries compete for access to this precious resource. The possibility of a so-called ‘waterwar’ is indeed a tremendous threat to Egyptian National Security.This thesis will examine the stresses placed on this diminishing resource (i.e. the supply and demand for water in the Region),and explore the need for improved international and cooperative planning and management procedures that must be developedin order to better appropriate, allocate and optimize the use of water and thus bolster internal development and strengthenexternal ties and stability.
15. SUBJECT TERMS
 
Nile River, water resources, hydropolitics, environmental security, national agreements , Egypt currentand future needs of water, the impact of water scarcity on Egypt national security
 
16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATIONOF ABSTRACT18. NUMBEROF PAGES19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSONa. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. PHONE NUMBER
(include area code 
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(U) (U) (U) (U) 109
Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)
Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18
 
 
iiiMASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCETHESIS APPROVAL PAGEName of Candidate: Major Mohamed ElshopkyThesis Title: The Impact of Water Scarcity on Egyptian National Security and onRegional Security in the Nile River BasinApproved by:, Thesis Committee ChairPeter R. Scheffer, Jr., M.A., MemberJeffrey D. Vordermark, M.A., MemberTimothy R. Hentschel, Ph.D.Accepted this 8th day of June 2012 by:, Director, Graduate Degree ProgramsRobert F. Baumann, Ph.D.The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student author and do notnecessarily represent the views of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College orany other governmental agency. (References to this study should include the foregoingstatement.)
 

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