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Published by: vk2you009 on Oct 24, 2012
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The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II presents the procedure of the proposedmoving objects detection method. In Section III, experimental results are discussed. Finally, SectionIV presents concluding remarks.[3]The video surveillance market is increasingly moving toward cheaper, efficient, portable, and highresolution systems.a need for better video resolution has generated an interest in using high definition (HD) rates forvideo surveillance.[2]Our prototyped architecture is more hardware-efficient than previous FPGA-based architectures interms of power consumption, area, throughput, and memory utilization.THERE IS AN increasing need for high quality, real-time video on low power, mobile devices suchas mobile phone cameras, bio-medical devices, security and sensor cameras, and so on.Motion estimation (ME) is the most powerful compression tool in the H.264/AVC [1], but it is alsothe most time consuming. In order to meet low power and real-time constraints, it is critical toefficiently speed up ME via fast algorithms and hardware acceleration
.[4]
This paper deals with an intelligent image processing method for the video surveillance systems. Wepropose a technology detecting and tracking multiple moving objects, which can be applied toconsumer electronics such as home and business surveillance systems.To detect and track the specific moving objects only, it is important to eliminate the environmentaldisturbances such as light scattering, leaves, birds and so on from input images. To do this, twomethods are mainly used. One is to use the Bayesian method such as the particle filter (PF) or theextended Kalman filter (EKF), the other is to use the difference image methods such as thebackground modeling (BM) or the Gaussian mixture model (GMM).[1]Motion detection is the first essential process in the extraction of information regarding movingobjects and makes use of stabilization in functional areas, such as tracking, classification, recognition,and so on.Our method achieves complete detection of moving objects by involving three significant proposedmodules: a background modeling (BM) module.The three major classes of methods for motion detection are background subtraction, temporaldifferencing, and optical flow [13]. Background subtraction [14]
 – 
[23], [33] is the most popularmotion detection method and consists of the differentiation of moving objects from a maintained andupdated background model, which can be further grouped into parametric type and non-parametrictype [33]. Based on the implicit assumption along with the choice of parameters, the parametric modelmay achieve perfect performance corresponding to the real data along with parametric information.The currently implemented method for background subtraction accomplishes its objective bysubtracting each pixel of the incoming video frame from the background model, thus generating anabsolute difference.Although the currently implemented background subtraction method is convenient forimplementation, the noise tolerance in the video frame relies on the determined threshold.Functionalities such as object classification, tracking, behaviour, and identification are then performedon the regions where moving objects have been detected.
 
A two-phase background matching procedure is used to select suitable background candidates forgeneration of an updated background model.The major purpose of background subtraction is to generate a reliable background model and thussignificantly improve the detection of moving objects.
Fig. 3. Flowchart for our proposed background modeling procedure
 A. Simple Background Subtraction
Both the reference image
 B
(
 x, y
) and the incoming video frame
 It 
(
 x, y
) are obtained from the videosequence. A binary motion detection mask 
 D
(
 x, y
) is calculated as follows:
 D
(
 x, y
) = 1
 ,
if 
|
 I 
(
 x, y
)
 
 B
(
 x, y
)
|
> τ 
 
0
 ,
if 
|
 I 
(
 x, y
)
 
 B
(
 x, y
)
|
 
τ 
 
where
τ 
is the predefined threshold which designates pixels as either the background or the movingobjects in a video frame. If the absolute difference between a reference image and an incoming videoframe does not exceed
τ 
, the pixels of 
the detection mask are labeled “0,” which means it contains
 
 background, otherwise, active ones are labeled “1,” which designates
it as containing moving objects.A significant problem experienced by the SBS method in most real video sequences is that it fails torespond precisely when noise occurs in the incoming video frame
 It 
(
 x, y
) and static objects occur inthe reference image
 B
(
 x, y
) [20]. Note that the reference image
 B
(
 x, y
) represents the fixed backgroundmodel, which is selected from the test frames [20].[9]
 
The aim of motion detection is to identify moving objects from a sequence of image frames.Identifying and localizing moving objects such as humans or vehicles on an image sequence is notstraightforward due to the sensitivity on environmental changes.Moving objects in an image sequence generate image difference and detecting each connectedcomponent in the difference regarding the intensity and size is the key issue in many motion detection
 
algorithms. Thus, one may view the problem as segmentation or clustering problem. In this section,we discuss the related models to our new model and address challenges.[15]To reduce power consumption, there was another way to design a motion detection system.[14]Motion estimation (ME) has been widely used in many video applications such as video compression,video segmentation, and video tracking.[13]Motion estimation (ME) has a key role in compression of video sequences. Motion estimation andmotion compensation have been widely used in many video coding standards, such as MPEG-1/2/3and H.261/263/264, to remove the temporal redundancy between successive frames in videosequences. Many different motion estimation methods are investigated and reported in the literature.[12]Human-behavior analysis based on video surveillance has been investigated worldwide. As aconsumer video application, automatic surveillance requires a sufficiently high accuracy and thecomputation complexity should enable a real-time performance.With the continuous improvements in video analysis techniques, automatic low-cost videosurveillance gradually emerges for consumer applications. Video surveillance can contribute to thesafety of people in the home and ease control of home-entrance and equipment usage functions.
 
[19]Motion detection plays an essential role in any surveillance system, occupancy-detection applicationsand moving object systems. It is also widely used in real-time image processing applications such aswireless security systems and occupancy-detection systems, medical instruments and toys. Theseapplications extract the movement of objects and detect motion from currently acquired images.The surveillance and occupancy-detection can be achieved, if the change of motion can be detected if differences exist between the current image and the previous image.We designed a user interface program to provide seamless integration with the surveillance camerasystem. After motion detection, this system stores the image data into flash memory. At the sametime, the size and information of the detected images are also saved in the flash memory.When motion is detected, the operation mode is switched into capture mode and the full image isshown on the screen and is stored into the flash memory. The transfer mode then transfers the data tothe PC.[20]Generally, there are three types of moving objects detection methods. They are optical flow method,temporal difference method and background subtraction method Compared with other types of methods, background subtraction method is more practical and effective. It uses the distortionbetween current frame and background frame to detect moving objects.[21]On the other hand, with the improved fabrication technology and architecture, CMOS Image Sensors(CIS) have significant advantages : (1) Low voltage operation and low power consumption, (2)compatibility with integrated functional blocks, such as, control blocks, analog signal processors andAnalog to Digital Converters (ADC).

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