should be applicable to a wide range of other non-metallic pipe materials. The mainrequirement is that the material in question should obey Miner’s law in its long termstress rupture behaviour.Figure 2 shows the regression relationship, determined using constant pressure tests,for one type of RTP, determined at 60ºC. The mean line and the 97.5% LPL areshown. As in the majority of procedures for thermoplastics pipes
, the mean line wasdetermined by regression of log time on log pressure, rather than vice versa, becausethis gives the most conservative prediction. Table 1 gives values of the regression lineparameters and the 20 year LPL calculated from these data, as well as those obtainedfrom other experiments using the novel loading profiles.Constant pressure testing has some drawbacks as a means of generating qualificationdata. The principal difficulty arises when the slope of the log pressure vs log failuretime relationship is shallow. In this case small statistical variations in the product canproduce large variations in the time to failure, with the effect that it is very difficult toknow when a pipe spool under a particular pressure will fail during the testingcampaign. This can be highly inconvenient, and expensive in the case of points atlong times. Most qualification procedures require a certain number of failure pointsto be generated at failure times exceeding 10,000 hours. This needs a careful estimateto be made of the test pressure. If the sample fails prematurely, just short of therequired time, it may be necessary to repeat the test. However, there is also theproblem of what to do if with ‘run-out’ spools- samples that do not fail within the testperiod. Usually such unfailed samples are treated as failure points, but this proceduremay be unduly conservative.Procedures involving ramp loading, and employing Miner’s Law to interpret theresults, offer a solution to these problems. In addition, they offer the possibility of deciding or determining when samples will fail during the test campaign. One variantof the technique- constant pressure testing, followed by a ramped short term burst testoffers the most advantages. With this procedure it is possible to hold samples atconstant pressure in the conventional manner, then at fixed times carry out bursttesting.The proposed procedures also have some drawbacks. For instance, Miner’s Law is anempirical law and the product class in question needs to have been already shown toobey it. It will also be seen that care is needed with timescales when converting ramp-type results into equivalent constant pressure values.
The theory will be presented here in terms of pressure. However, it would be equallyvalid in terms of hoop stress. Miner’s Law will be assumed to apply. This is anempirical law and there is no reason why,
, a particular material system shouldbe expected to conform. Nevertheless, for a number of polymers the law has beenshown to be applicable with reasonable accuracy. Current evidence for aramid fibrereinforced RTP
suggests that it is obeyed. Miner’s Law states that, for a systemsubject to
different stress values, (in this case, pressure,
) each lasting for duration,
, failure occurs when